Since joining ASEAN in 1997, Vietnam has played a significant role in regional diplomacy and development. Vietnam’s foreign policy aims to act as a “friend and reliable partner of all countries in the international community.” Vietnam has established strategic partnerships with Japan, China, India, Russia and other countries. The United States and Vietnam agreed on a “comprehensive partnership” in 2013 that is strategic in all but name, including cooperation on economic, security, educational, cultural and war legacy issues. Vietnam’s policy of multiple partnerships has remained intact despite maritime security challenges in the East (South China) Sea and disputes over management of the Mekong River.
Politically, Vietnam is a one-party state ruled by the Communist Party. The People’s Army of Vietnam has significant influence in the political system. Freedom of expression, opinion and speech are guaranteed in the constitution but not implemented in practice. Vietnam’s vibrant civil society and social media face increasing restrictions affecting both informal actors (such as bloggers) and legally registered nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Human rights remain a contentious issue in the US-Vietnam relationship; However, both President Obama and President Trump assured Vietnamese leaders in the past that the United States respects Vietnam’s differing political system.
The Vietnamese government won international recognition for its strict handling of the COVID-19 pandemic in its early stages. Although subsequent waves have been harder to control, Vietnam’s economy has continued to grow at the highest rate in Southeast Asia. Future challenges for the country include how to continue economic liberalization and social opening while maintaining stability and a relatively low level of inequality.
USIP’s War Legacies and Reconciliation Initiative
The US Institute of Peace engages in research and dialogue examining the extraordinary arc of US-Vietnam relations. In August 2021, USIP launched a multiyear project to foster public education as well as government-to-government and people-to-people dialogue among Vietnamese and Americans. Addressing war legacies, including Agent Orange, unexploded bombs (UXO) and recovery of wartime remains, is an essential component of the broader work of building a strong bilateral partnership.
USIP’s initiative stems from Congress’s landmark authorization in 2021 for the US government to assist Vietnam in identifying its dead war, following decades of Vietnamese cooperation to help the United States conduct the fullest possible accounting of US personnel. USIP’s project aims to further advance reconciliation, to sustain US support for addressing war legacies and to highlight from the US-Vietnam experience that could apply other lessons in the world.
Events and Public Education
USIP convenes virtual and in-person seminars featuring prominent speakers from the US and Vietnam. Our experts also join events with partners around the United States to increase public awareness of the journey towards reconciliation and the ongoing importance of addressing war legacies.
USIP convenes governmental and nongovernmental leaders in Track 1.5 and Track 2 dialogues on war legacies and the US-Vietnam partnership. Dialogues focus on specific issues or topics, such as Agent Orange remediation or veterans’ exchange. Additional dialogues are planned for students and young professionals from both countries, including Americans of Vietnamese descent.
Media and Publications
USIP supports video, social media, blogs and reports on topics related to war legacies and bilateral cooperation, enabling Americans and Vietnamese to speak in their own voices about their experiences of reconciliation. Publications advance USIP’s values of ending conflicts and rethinking US engagement in Asia.