How drugmakers come up with evocative brand names like Viagra and Lunesta

When you pick up a prescription of Viagra, Lunesta, Advair, or Paxlovid, you might wonder how drugs get their mystifying brand names. Do pharmaceutical executives sit around a conference table and blurt out sounds or syllables or scribble them down until they conjure a unique name that suits the drug they’ve developed? The reality is not that simple.

Even though people enjoy poking fun at pharmaceutical brand names, says Scott Piergrossi, president of Creative at the Brand Institute, a name-development firm based in Miami, they should understand that drug brand names incorporate safeguards that minimize medication errors caused by name confusion. “The names are very well thought out in a hugely iterative process,” he says.

Although the naming of a drug may appear whimsical, “it’s a very regimented process,” says Suzanne Martinez, a Chicago-based strategist at Intouch, a pharmaceutical marketing agency.

There is a steady demand for snappy new drug names. “There are 30,000 drugs on the market in the US, and the US Food and Drug Administration approves 50 novel brand names every year,” says Todd Bridges, global president of the Drug Safety Institute , the regulatory arm of the Brand Institute, and former director of the Division of Medication Error and Prevention Analysis at the FDA. Every year, he adds, it becomes more challenging to get new brand names approved.

Playing the name game

In broad strokes, the drug-naming process includes a creative phase, involving an agency or firm that specializes in brand strategy and marketing to develop potential names; an assessment phase involving professionals from the drugmaker’s commercial, regulatory, and legal departments; and regulatory procedures involving legal reviews and approval by the FDA.

“Naming is an art and a science,” says Martinez. “Both sides of the brain go into it.”

On the creative side, brand strategists and other imaginative types try to come up with names that are appealing and will resonate with the consumer in both messaging and tone. This involves linguistic, legal, and written challenges. At the same time, they want to avoid any prefixes or suffixes that may have negative, derogatory, or offensive connotations.

That can be complicated because the pharmaceutical business crosses borders and “most of the time [drug companies] are looking for one name that can work globally,” Martinez says. After all, a name or syllable that might make sense in the US may be a no-go in a European market. For example, “mist” has positive connotations in English , but it means manure in German.

In the naming business, “we call these permavoids—roots to permanently avoid,” Piergrossi says.

To develop a name that’s likely to satisfy all parties—including the decision-makers at the pharmaceutical company and regulatory bodies in multiple countries—the agency’s strategic and creative team spend months brainstorming hundreds of possible names for one drug. Then that list is gradually whittled down and presented to decision-makers at the pharmaceutical company, and finally the FDA.

“On average, pharmaceutical companies spend hundreds of thousands of dollars developing a drug name,” Piergrossi says, and the whole process typically takes two to three years, though it was faster for COVID-19 drugs.

When developing names, sometimes strategists will try to embed a reference to the biology behind the drug. For example, the cancer drug Xalkori is an ALK—short for anaplastic lymphoma kinase—inhibitor, while Zelboraf, used to treat melanoma, is a molecule that inhibits the BRAF gene.

“They sound like alien names, but they can cue physicians to their mechanisms of action,” says R. John Fidelino, head of innovation and impact at The Development, a brand strategy and marketing consulting firm in New York City.

An emotional touch

Sometimes companies want the name to stir up an emotion or be more aspirational—as was the case with Advair, which suggests an advantage when it comes to air and breathing. Fidelino participated in the naming of Viagra, which was the first pill that worked to address erectile dysfunction. The name was chosen because “it expresses vim, vigor, and vitality that a man was looking to experience and achieve in overcoming erectile dysfunction,” says Fidelino.

But there’s a fine line because the name can’t make an exaggerated claim, be promotional, or overstate the drug’s efficacy—suggesting a cure, for example.

As part of the drug-naming process, pharmaceutical companies often want to highlight what’s unique about a particular medication. “Every drug that comes to market has an aspect of innovation—many times it’s unprecedented in terms of the disease it treats or it uses a mechanism of action that’s completely new,” explains Fidelino.

Piergrossi was involved in the naming of Latisse, a prescription treatment to help people with thin, or too few, eyelashes grow more. The “La” alludes to the word “lash” and the “tisse” evokes the French impressionist, Henri Matisse. As a result, Piergrossi explains, Latisse “almost has a styling effect associated with it.”

In creating the name Lunesta, for insomnia, Piergrossi and his team wanted to include the word “lune,” to evoke a feeling of lunar influences and a sense of restoration and sleep, he explains.

By contrast, generic drug names are based upon specific syllables—called stems—that are strung together to convey information about the chemical structure or action of a medication. For example, bebtelovimab is a newly approved monoclonal antibody drug that can be used to treat COVID -19; like other monoclonal antibodies, the name ends in -mab. In the US, these are assigned by the United States Adopted Names Council as a prerequisite to marketing a drug. “The stem at the end of the drug indicates the class of medicine,” Martinez says. “It is like a mini scientific formula in a name.”

Who makes the final choice

On the regulatory side, the drug maker’s attorneys evaluate legal and regulatory issues behind potential names. Part of the evaluation considers whether the name makes exaggerated claims or misstates the efficacy. Which is why we don’t see drug brand names with the word “cure ” or “remedy” in them.

Ultimately, the FDA gives final approval of a drug’s brand name. To determine whether to approve a proposed name, one of the steps the FDA employs is a software program commonly referred to as POCA, which is short for: Phonetic and Orthographic Computerized Analysis. It uses an advanced algorithm to identify similarities between drug names, both when they’re spoken and written as a prescription.

This includes letters that are similar in cursive writing—such as L, T, and K that have an upstroke, explains John Breen, executive director of health strategy for the kyu Collective, a marketing services organization, in New York City.

In addition, the FDA’s name-approval process includes database searches for medication errors related to active ingredients in the drug, simulation studies with FDA-employed healthcare providers to test their response to proposed names, and consideration of possible failures, errors, or name confusion when it comes to prescribing, ordering, dispensing or administering the drug.

“There’s a reason why there’s a bit of wackiness when it comes to drug names,” Breen says. That’s because “it has become almost a survival of the fittest not necessarily from brand-building or commercial potential but from surviving the [name] approval process.”

Cases of mistaken identity

According to a 2018 report by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices, of the 6,206 medication-related errors reported to the ISMP between 2012 and 2016, nearly 10 percent were related to drug name confusion. That was a significant improvement from reports submitted between 2000 and 2004 in which 20 percent of medication errors were related to drug name confusion. These errors can occur as a doctor writes a prescription, as a pharmacist dispenses a drug, when a nurse administers, or when a patient takes medications—if they have two with similar-sounding names, for instance.

Among the examples of look-alike, sound-alike drug names that are often confused for each other are: Adderall and Inderal; Celebrex, Celexa, and Cerebyx; Paxil and Taxol; Zyrtec and Zantac. These are just a few examples from the Institute for Safe Medication Practices’ lengthy list of drug names that are frequently confused.

Between 2000 and 2009, the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) received approximately 126,000 reports of medication errors, “some of which are directly related to the similar sound and appearance of drug name pairs.”

When name-related drug errors come to light, the FDA will sometimes ask a company to rename a medicine. This happened in 1990, in the case of Losec (for heartburn) and Lasix (a diuretic); subsequently, Losec was renamed Prilosec. In 2010, after reports of dispensing errors were made to the FDA, Kapidex (a heartburn drug) was renamed Dexilant to avoid confusion with Casodex (a cancer drug) and Kadian (a narcotic). And in 2016 the FDA approved a name change for Brintellix (an antidepressant) to Trintellix, in order to reduce the risk of confusion with Brilinta (a blood-thinning drug).

How does the FDA decide which drug’s name should be changed? “The one that was approved last has to change its name,” Bridges says. “You can imagine how this would affect a company—after spending all that money developing and marketing a name , then they have to change it.”

Meanwhile, the FDA continues to update its guidelines and standards for evaluating drug name safety, Martinez says. “The regulatory landscape is always evolving,” she adds, in an effort to avoid brand names that are potentially problematic. The FDA has a monitoring system called MedWatch to track both adverse effects from drugs as well as medication errors, including name confusion, Bridges notes.

Seeking brand names with staying power

Just as brands like Kleenex and Xerox became synonymous with their products, a similar phenomenon sometimes happens with drugs. Over time, some drug brand names—such as Viagra, Xanax, Botox, and Lipitor—have become leaders in their categories, household words, and linked with their intended purpose. “People use them more often in their everyday vernacular than most other drugs,” Martinez says.

Sometimes brand names stick in the public’s mind and sometimes they don’t. Take the vaccines for COVID-19 as an example: Most people know if they received the Pfizer or the Moderna vaccine and were able to request subsequent vaccines or boosters accordingly. However , most people don’t ask for the Pfizer vaccine by its brand name, Comirnaty, or the Moderna vaccine by its marketed name, Spikevax, after these drugs earned full approval from the FDA.

To their credit, the names do evoke associations with how the vaccines work: COVID and mRNA for COMIRNATY; and the mechanism of action, using an mRNA vaccine to trigger production of the spike protein, for Spikevax.

The take-home message

Besides being intriguing, understanding what goes into naming a drug and how it might relate to the actual product may help you avoid your own name-confusion at the drugstore. If you start to think of Zantac as a drug that combats stomach acid—hence, the -ac at the end—you’ll be less likely to confuse it with the antihistamine Zyrtec (a look-alike name) or the benzodiazepine Xanax (a sound-alike name).

“We often try to build in layers of meaning to drug brand names,” Piergrossi says. “The more we can encode multiple concepts that relate to the product’s attributes or benefits without sounding forced or contrived, that’s the ideal scenario.” It’s true for pharmaceutical companies, health-care professionals, and consumers, alike.

","header":"Thanks for signing up!"},"submitButton":"Sign Up","closeableGeos":{}}]}],"placement":"footer","chldOptns":{"bannerPlacement":"footer"}},{"placement":"footer","logoObj":{"key":"logoObj","alt":"National Geographic Logo - Home","href":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/","title":null,"logo":{"image":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":3.4364261168384878,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4da26b5c-18ee-413f-96dd-4cf3fb4a68a0/2fl-white.png"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4da26b5c-18ee-413f-96dd-4cf3fb4a68a0/2fl-white","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4da26b5c-18ee-413f-96dd-4cf3fb4a68a0/2fl-white.png","ext":"png"}},"mobileLogo":{"image":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":3.4364261168384878,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4da26b5c-18ee-413f-96dd-4cf3fb4a68a0/2fl-white.png"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4da26b5c-18ee-413f-96dd-4cf3fb4a68a0/2fl-white","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4da26b5c-18ee-413f-96dd-4cf3fb4a68a0/2fl-white.png","ext":"png"}}},"id":"natgeo-footer","cmsType":"FooterFrame","mods":[{"mnu":[{"title":"Legal","links":[{"url":"https://disneytermsofuse.com/english/","isExternal":null,"title":"Terms of Use"},{"url":"https://privacy.thewaltdisneycompany.com/en/current-privacy-policy/","isExternal":null,"title":"Privacy Policy"},{"url":"https://disneyprivacycenter.com/notice-to-california-residents/","isExternal":null,"title":"Your California Privacy Rights"},{"url":"https://disneyprivacycenter.com/kids-privacy-policy/english/","isExternal":null,"title":"Children's Online Privacy Policy"},{"url":"http://preferences-mgr.trustarc.com/?pid=disney01&aid=natgeo01&type=natgeo","isExternal":null,"title":"Interest-Based Ads"},{"url":"http://www.nielsen.com/digitalprivacy","isExternal":null,"title":"About Nielsen Measurement"},{"url":"https://privacy.thewaltdisneycompany.com/en/dnsmi/","isExternal":null,"title":"Do Not Sell My Info","style":"ot-sdk-show-settings"}]},{"title":"Our Sites","links":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/","isExternal":null,"title":"Nat Geo Home"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/events/","isExternal":null,"title":"Attend a Live Event"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/expeditions/?cmpid=int_org=ngp::int_mc=website::int_src=ngp::int_cmp=exp_hp::int_add=ngpexp201904-book-footer","isExternal":null,"title":"Book a Trip"},{"url":"https://www.natgeomaps.com","isExternal":null,"title":"Buy Maps"},{"url":"https://kids.nationalgeographic.com","isExternal":null,"title":"Inspire Your Kids"},{"url":"https://www.shopdisney.com/franchises/national-geographic/","isExternal":null,"title":"Shop Nat Geo"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.org/tickets/events/","isExternal":null,"title":"Visit the D.C. Museum"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/tv/","isExternal":null,"title":"Watch TV"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/impact","isExternal":null,"title":"Learn About Our Impact"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.org/give/","isExternal":null,"title":"Support our Mission"},{"url":"https://nationalgeographicpartners.com/","isExternal":null,"title":"Nat Geo Partners"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/pages/article/masthead","isExternal":null,"title":"Masthead"},{"url":"https://nationalgeographicpartners.com/press/","isExternal":null,"title":"Press Room"},{"url":"https://www.disneyadsales.com/our-brands/national-geographic/","isExternal":null,"title":"Advertise With Us"}]},{"title":"Join Us","links":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/subscribe/magazines?cmpid=int_org=ngp::int_mc=website::int_src=ngp::int_cmp=subs_ngm::int_add=navsubscribe_us","isExternal":false,"title":"Subscribe"},{"url":"https://help.nationalgeographic.com/s/","isExternal":false,"title":"Customer Service"},{"url":"https://ngmdomsubs.nationalgeographic.com/servlet/ECareGateway?cds_mag_code=NGM&cds_page_id=226717&cmpid=int_org=ngp::int_mc=website::int_src=ngp::int_cmp=subs_renew::int_add=ecare_nav_button","isExternal":false,"title":"Renew Subscription"},{"url":"https://w1.buysub.com/servlet/ECareGateway?cds_mag_code=NGM&cds_page_id=226717&cds_misc_1=NGM","isExternal":false,"title":"Manage Your Subscription"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographicpartners.com/careers/","isExternal":false,"title":"Work at Nat Geo"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/newsletters/signup?gblftr","isExternal":true,"title":"Sign up for Our Newsletters","target":"_blank"},{"url":"https://give.nationalgeographic.org/page/53299/donate/1?user_id=wb8em7wclp2gec8f8rj9f6lp88q9dftd","isExternal":true,"title":"Contribute to Protect the Planet","target":"_blank"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/pages/article/how-to-write-for-nat-geo","isExternal":true,"title":"Pitch a Story","target":"_blank"}]}]},{"edtnSltr":{"rgns":[{"title":"Europe","countries":[{"title":"Bulgaria","flag":{"icon":"flag__bulgaria","alt":"bu"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/bg","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.bg/","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Croatia","flag":{"icon":"flag__croatia","alt":"cr"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/hr","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"http://www.adriamedia.hr/izdanja/national-geographic-hrvatska","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Czech Republic","flag":{"icon":"flag__czech-republic","alt":"cz"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/cz","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"https://www.national-geographic.cz","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Denmark","flag":{"icon":"flag__denmark","alt":"de"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/dk","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Estonia","flag":{"icon":"flag__estonia","alt":"es"},"links":[{"url":"http://www.nationalgeographic.ee","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Finland","flag":{"icon":"flag__finland","alt":"fi"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/fi","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"France","flag":{"icon":"flag__france","alt":"fr"},"links":"https://www.nationalgeographic.fr"},{"title":"Georgia","flag":{"icon":"flag__georgia","alt":"ge"},"links":[{"url":"http://www.nationalgeographic.ge","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Germany","flag":{"icon":"flag__germany","alt":"ge"},"links":"https://www.nationalgeographic.de"},{"title":"Greece","flag":{"icon":"flag__greece","alt":"gr"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/gr","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Hungary","flag":{"icon":"flag__hungary","alt":"hu"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/hu","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"http://www.ng.hu","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Israel","flag":{"icon":"flag__israel","alt":"is"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/il","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Italy","flag":{"icon":"flag__italy","alt":"it"},"links":"http://www.nationalgeographic.it"},{"title":"Kazakhstan","flag":{"icon":"flag__kazakhstan","alt":"ka"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.kz","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Lithuania","flag":{"icon":"flag__lithuania","alt":"li"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.lt","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Netherlands","flag":{"icon":"flag__netherlands","alt":"ne"},"links":"https://www.nationalgeographic.nl"},{"title":"Norway","flag":{"icon":"flag__norway","alt":"no"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/no","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Poland","flag":{"icon":"flag__poland","alt":"po"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/pl","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"http://www.national-geographic.pl","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Portugal","flag":{"icon":"flag__portugal","alt":"po"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/pt","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"https://nationalgeographic.sapo.pt","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Romania","flag":{"icon":"flag__romania","alt":"ro"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/ro","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"https://www.natgeo.ro/","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Russia","flag":{"icon":"flag__russia","alt":"ru"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/ru","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"http://www.nat-geo.ru/","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Serbia","flag":{"icon":"flag__serbia","alt":"se"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/rs","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"http://www.nationalgeographic.rs/","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Slovenia","flag":{"icon":"flag__slovenia","alt":"sl"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/si","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"http://www.nationalgeographic.si/","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Spain","flag":{"icon":"flag__spain","alt":"sp"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.es/","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com.es/","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Sweden","flag":{"icon":"flag__sweden","alt":"sw"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/se","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Turkey","flag":{"icon":"flag__turkey","alt":"tu"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/tr","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"http://www.nationalgeographic.com.tr/","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"United Kingdom","flag":{"icon":"flag__united-kingdom","alt":"uk"},"links":"https://www.nationalgeographic.co.uk/"}]},{"title":"The Americas","countries":[{"title":"Brazil","flag":{"icon":"flag__brazil","alt":"br"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographicbrasil.com/","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Canada","flag":{"icon":"flag__canada","alt":"ca"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/ca","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Mexico","flag":{"icon":null,"alt":"mx"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.ngenespanol.com/","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Pan-Regional Latin America (Spanish)","flag":{"icon":null,"alt":"pa"},"links":"https://www.nationalgeographicla.com/"},{"title":"United States","flag":{"icon":"flag__united-states","alt":"us"},"links":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/"}]},{"title":"Asia, Australia & Oceania","countries":[{"title":"Australia","flag":{"icon":"flag__australia","alt":"au"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com.au","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Mainland China","flag":{"icon":null,"alt":"ch"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeo.com.cn/","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"http://www.ngchina.com.cn/","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Hong Kong","flag":{"icon":null,"alt":"ho"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/hk","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"India","flag":{"icon":"flag__india","alt":"in"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/in","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"https://www.amarchitrakatha.com/in/magazines/national-geographic/","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Indonesia","flag":{"icon":"flag__indonesia","alt":"in"},"links":[{"url":"https://nationalgeographic.grid.id/","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Japan","flag":{"icon":"flag__japan","alt":"ja"},"links":[{"url":"http://www.ngcjapan.com/tv/","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"http://www.nationalgeographic.jp","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Korea","flag":{"icon":"flag__south-korea","alt":"ko"},"links":[{"url":"http://www.ngckorea.com","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.co.kr/","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Pan-Regional Asia (English)","flag":{"icon":null,"alt":"pa"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/asia","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Taiwan","flag":{"icon":null,"alt":"ta"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.fng.tw/ngc/","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"https://www.natgeomedia.com/","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Thailand","flag":{"icon":"flag__thailand","alt":"th"},"links":[{"url":"http://www.ngthai.com","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]}]},{"title":"Middle East & Africa","countries":[{"title":"Farsi","flag":{"icon":null,"alt":"fa"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/farsi","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Persian","flag":{"icon":null,"alt":"pe"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/persian","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"South Africa","flag":{"icon":"flag__south-africa","alt":"so"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/za","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Middle East (English)","flag":{"icon":null,"alt":"mi"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/ae","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"}]},{"title":"Middle East (Arabic)","flag":{"icon":null,"alt":"mi"},"links":[{"url":"https://www.natgeotv.com/me","isExternal":false,"title":"Channel","target":"_self"},{"url":"http://www.ngalarabiya.com","isExternal":false,"title":"Magazine","target":"_self"}]}]}],"crnt":{"title":"United States","flag":{"icon":"flag__united-states","alt":"us"},"links":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/"},"key":"edtnSltr"},"shrURLs":{"key":"shrURLs","fb":"https://www.facebook.com/natgeo","fbLabel":"natgeo.facebookShare.ariaLabel","fbButtonTracking":{"event_name":"share","share_method":"facebook","content_title":""},"twitter":"https://twitter.com/natgeo/","twitterLabel":"natgeo.twitterShare.ariaLabel","twitterButtonTracking":{"event_name":"share","share_method":"twitter","content_title":""},"instagram":"https://www.instagram.com/natgeo/","instagramLabel":"natgeo.instagramShare.ariaLabel","instagramButtonTracking":{"event_name":"share","share_method":"instagram","content_title":""}}}]},{"placement":"footer","id":"frame10","mods":[{"logoObj":{"key":"logoObj","alt":"National Geographic Logo - Home","href":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/","title":null,"logo":{"image":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":3.4364261168384878,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4da26b5c-18ee-413f-96dd-4cf3fb4a68a0/2fl-white.png"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4da26b5c-18ee-413f-96dd-4cf3fb4a68a0/2fl-white","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4da26b5c-18ee-413f-96dd-4cf3fb4a68a0/2fl-white.png","ext":"png"}},"mobileLogo":{"image":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":3.4364261168384878,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4da26b5c-18ee-413f-96dd-4cf3fb4a68a0/2fl-white.png"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4da26b5c-18ee-413f-96dd-4cf3fb4a68a0/2fl-white","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/4da26b5c-18ee-413f-96dd-4cf3fb4a68a0/2fl-white.png","ext":"png"}}},"cprt":{"key":"cprt","txt":["Copyright © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society","Copyright © 2015-2022 National Geographic Partners, LLC. All rights reserved"]}}],"cmsType":"CopyrightFrame"}]},"header":{"frms":[{"id":"natgeo-global-header-frame1","mods":[{"id":"9962e4ca-3a7b-4b4d-9b2a-a5a9e2dd97da","cmsType":"StackModule","align":"left","edgs":[{"campaignName":"20220509_PremiumPromo_AlertBanner_US","canClose":true,"cmsType":"AlertBannerTile","id":"491de168-eb5a-41b1-aeb5-0a6608879a37","isTop":false,"href":"https://ngpremiumdisneyplus.nationalgeographic.com/servlet/OrdersGateway?cds_mag_code=NPF&cds_page_id=265383","label":"Get streaming, digital, and print all in one subscription with Nat Geo Premium with Disney+","target":"_blank","theme":"light"}]}],"placement":"header","chldOptns":{"bannerPlacement":"header"}},{"placement":"header","id":"natgeo-nav","mods":[{"logoObj":{"key":"logoObj","alt":"National Geographic Logo - Home","href":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/","title":"National Geographic","logo":{"image":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":3.404255319148936,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/e76f5368-6797-4794-b7f6-8d757c79ea5c/ng-logo-2fl.png"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/e76f5368-6797-4794-b7f6-8d757c79ea5c/ng-logo-2fl","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/e76f5368-6797-4794-b7f6-8d757c79ea5c/ng-logo-2fl.png","ext":"png"}},"mobileLogo":{"image":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":0.7,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1852daf6-1c8d-4428-8ee2-d9a82bd0401c/ng-border.png"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1852daf6-1c8d-4428-8ee2-d9a82bd0401c/ng-border","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1852daf6-1c8d-4428-8ee2-d9a82bd0401c/ng-border.png","ext":"png"}}},"usr":{"key":"usr","links":[{"url":"#oneid-profile","title":"Account Settings"},{"url":"https://w1.buysub.com/servlet/ECareGateway?cds_mag_code=NGM&cds_page_id=226717&cds_misc_1=NGM","title":"Manage Your Subscription"},{"url":"/subscribe/link-subscription","title":"Link Your Subscription"},{"url":"https://help.nationalgeographic.com/s/","title":"Help","target":"_blank"},{"url":"#oneid-logout","title":"Sign Out"}],"lnk":{"url":"#oneid-login"}},"srch":{"title":null,"icon":null,"href":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/search","key":"srch","shw":true},"rnw":{"key":"rnw","shw":true,"title":"Newsletters","url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/newsletters/signup"},"sbcrb":{"key":"sbcrb","shw":true,"title":"Subscribe","url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/subscribe"},"mnu":{"undefined":{"title":"","links":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/subscribe","title":"Subscribe"},{"url":"/renew","title":"Renew"}]},"prmMnu":{"key":"prmMnu","title":"Topics","links":[{"url":"/animals","title":"Animals"},{"url":"/environment","title":"Environment"},{"url":"/history","title":"History & Culture"},{"url":"/science","title":"Science"},{"url":"/travel","title":"Travel"}]},"secMnu":{"key":"secMnu","title":"Sites","links":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/tv/","title":"Watch TV!"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine","title":"Read The Magazine"},{"url":"/family","title":"Visit Nat Geo Family"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/expeditions/","title":"Book A Trip"},{"url":"https://kids.nationalgeographic.com","title":"Inspire your Kids"},{"url":"/podcasts/overheard","title":"Listen to Podcasts"},{"url":"https://www.shopdisney.com/franchises/national-geographic/","title":"Shop Nat Geo"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/events/","title":"Attend a Live Event"},{"url":"/impact/","title":"Learn About Our Impact"},{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.org/give/","title":"Support Our Mission"}]},"key":"mnu"},"cmsType":"NavModule"}],"cmsType":"NavFrame"},{"id":"e17aa8d2-d11b-4156-88f1-93b2a532cac9","className":"stickyFrame stickyFrame--bottom","placement":"header","chldOptns":{"bannerPlacement":"footer"}}]},"article":{"frms":[{"id":"natgeo-template1-frame-1","mods":[{"id":"3eaeb5bc-0d35-4ae9-9d25-60eb91d33c9c","cmsType":"StackModule","align":"left","edgs":[{"disableImmersiveLead":false,"id":"dbf51a95-c552-4478-99ed-aa0b050e3d08","focalPoint":{"x":"center","y":"center"},"textPanel":true,"textPosition":{"x":"left","y":"center"},"cmsType":"ImmersiveLeadTile","cmsImage":{"cmsType":"image","hasCopyright":true,"id":"f47ea9ed-d476-4646-9c18-f3dcdb989ac6","lines":3,"positionMetaBottom":true,"showMore":true,"caption":"There are 30,000 drugs on the market in the U.S., and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves 50 novel brand names every year.","credit":"Photograph by H.Angelica Corneliussen, 500px/Getty Images","image":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.4970760233918128,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013.jpg","altText":"Picture of white pills","crdt":"Photograph by H.Angelica Corneliussen, 500px/Getty Images","dsc":"Closeup of many prescription drugs.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"White_pills"},"imageAlt":"Picture of white pills"},"hideEndBug":true,"positionMetaBottom":true,"showDownArrow":false,"ctaLinkDisplay":"textLink","description":"There’s an art and a science to naming pharmaceutical drugs. Here’s what is embedded in the name on the label—and why","sectionLabels":[{"name":"Science","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science"}],"theme":"Light","tint":"noTint","title":"How drugmakers come up with evocative brand names like Viagra and Lunesta"}]},{"id":"natgeo-template1-frame-1-module-1","cmsType":"StackModule","align":"left","edgs":[{"dvdr":{"hideLogo":true},"cmsType":"ArticleBodyTile","id":"natgeo-template1-frame-1-module-1","bdy":[{"id":"html0","cntnt":{"mrkup":"When you pick up a prescription of Viagra, Lunesta, Advair, or Paxlovid, you might wonder how drugs get their mystifying brand names. Do pharmaceutical executives sit around a conference table and blurt out sounds or syllables or scribble them down until they conjure a unique name that suits the drug they’ve developed? The reality is not that simple."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html1","cntnt":{"mrkup":"Even though people enjoy poking fun at pharmaceutical brand names, says Scott Piergrossi, president of Creative at the Brand Institute, a name-development firm based in Miami, they should understand that drug brand names incorporate safeguards that minimize medication errors caused by name confusion. “The names are very well thought out in a hugely iterative process,” he says."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html2","cntnt":{"mrkup":"Although the naming of a drug may appear whimsical, “it’s a very regimented process,” says Suzanne Martinez, a Chicago-based strategist at Intouch, a pharmaceutical marketing agency."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html3","cntnt":{"mrkup":"There is a steady demand for snappy new drug names. “There are 30,000 drugs on the market in the U.S., and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves 50 novel brand names every year,” says Todd Bridges, global president of the Drug Safety Institute, the regulatory arm of the Brand Institute, and former director of the Division of Medication Error and Prevention Analysis at the FDA. Every year, he adds, it becomes more challenging to get new brand names approved."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html4","cntnt":{"mrkup":"Playing the name game"},"type":"h2"},{"id":"html5","cntnt":{"mrkup":"In broad strokes, the drug-naming process includes a creative phase, involving an agency or firm that specializes in brand strategy and marketing to develop potential names; an assessment phase involving professionals from the drugmaker’s commercial, regulatory, and legal departments; and regulatory procedures involving legal reviews and approval by the FDA."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html6","cntnt":{"mrkup":"“Naming is an art and a science,” says Martinez. “Both sides of the brain go into it.”"},"type":"p"},{"id":"html7","cntnt":{"mrkup":"On the creative side, brand strategists and other imaginative types try to come up with names that are appealing and will resonate with the consumer in both messaging and tone. This involves linguistic, legal, and written challenges. At the same time, they want to avoid any prefixes or suffixes that may have negative, derogatory, or offensive connotations."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html8","cntnt":{"mrkup":"That can be complicated because the pharmaceutical business crosses borders and “most of the time [drug companies] are looking for one name that can work globally,” Martinez says. After all, a name or syllable that might make sense in the U.S. may be a no-go in a European market. For example, “mist” has positive connotations in English, but it means manure in German."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html9","cntnt":{"mrkup":"In the naming business, “we call these permavoids—roots to permanently avoid,” Piergrossi says."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html10","cntnt":{"mrkup":"To develop a name that’s likely to satisfy all parties—including the decision-makers at the pharmaceutical company and regulatory bodies in multiple countries—the agency’s strategic and creative team spend months brainstorming hundreds of possible names for one drug. Then that list is gradually whittled down and presented to decision-makers at the pharmaceutical company, and finally the FDA."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html11","cntnt":{"mrkup":"“On average, pharmaceutical companies spend hundreds of thousands of dollars developing a drug name,” Piergrossi says, and the whole process typically takes two to three years, though it was faster for COVID-19 drugs."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html12","cntnt":{"mrkup":"When developing names, sometimes strategists will try to embed a reference to the biology behind the drug. For example, the cancer drug Xalkori is an ALK—short for anaplastic lymphoma kinase—inhibitor, while Zelboraf, used to treat melanoma, is a molecule that inhibits the BRAF gene."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html13","cntnt":{"mrkup":"“They sound like alien names, but they can cue physicians to their mechanisms of action,” says R. John Fidelino, head of innovation and impact at The Development, a brand strategy and marketing consulting firm in New York City."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html14","cntnt":{"mrkup":"An emotional touch"},"type":"h2"},{"id":"html15","cntnt":{"mrkup":"Sometimes companies want the name to stir up an emotion or be more aspirational—as was the case with Advair, which suggests an advantage when it comes to air and breathing. Fidelino participated in the naming of Viagra, which was the first pill that worked to address erectile dysfunction. The name was chosen because “it expresses vim, vigor, and vitality that a man was looking to experience and achieve in overcoming erectile dysfunction,” says Fidelino."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html16","cntnt":{"mrkup":"But there’s a fine line because the name can’t make an exaggerated claim, be promotional, or overstate the drug’s efficacy—suggesting a cure, for example."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html17","cntnt":{"mrkup":"As part of the drug-naming process, pharmaceutical companies often want to highlight what’s unique about a particular medication. “Every drug that comes to market has an aspect of innovation—many times it’s unprecedented in terms of the disease it treats or it uses a mechanism of action that’s completely new,” explains Fidelino."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html18","cntnt":{"mrkup":"Piergrossi was involved in the naming of Latisse, a prescription treatment to help people with thin, or too few, eyelashes grow more. The “La” alludes to the word “lash” and the “tisse” evokes the French impressionist, Henri Matisse. As a result, Piergrossi explains, Latisse “almost has a styling effect associated with it.”"},"type":"p"},{"id":"html19","cntnt":{"mrkup":"In creating the name Lunesta, for insomnia, Piergrossi and his team wanted to include the word “lune,” to evoke a feeling of lunar influences and a sense of restoration and sleep, he explains."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html20","cntnt":{"mrkup":"By contrast, generic drug names are based upon specific syllables—called stems—that are strung together to convey information about the chemical structure or action of a medication. For example, bebtelovimab is a newly approved monoclonal antibody drug that can be used to treat COVID-19; like other monoclonal antibodies, the name ends in -mab. In the U.S., these are assigned by the United States Adopted Names Council as a prerequisite to marketing a drug. “The stem at the end of the drug indicates the class of medicine,” Martinez says. “It is like a mini scientific formula in a name.”"},"type":"p"},{"id":"html21","cntnt":{"mrkup":"Who makes the final choice "},"type":"h2"},{"id":"html22","cntnt":{"mrkup":"On the regulatory side, the drug maker’s attorneys evaluate legal and regulatory issues behind potential names. Part of the evaluation considers whether the name makes exaggerated claims or misstates the efficacy. Which is why we don’t see drug brand names with the word “cure” or “remedy” in them."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html23","cntnt":{"mrkup":"Ultimately, the FDA gives final approval of a drug’s brand name. To determine whether to approve a proposed name, one of the steps the FDA employs is a software program commonly referred to as POCA, which is short for: Phonetic and Orthographic Computerized Analysis. It uses an advanced algorithm to identify similarities between drug names, both when they’re spoken and written as a prescription."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html24","cntnt":{"mrkup":"This includes letters that are similar in cursive writing—such as L, T, and K that have an upstroke, explains John Breen, executive director of health strategy for the kyu Collective, a marketing services organization, in New York City."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html25","cntnt":{"mrkup":"In addition, the FDA’s name-approval process includes database searches for medication errors related to active ingredients in the drug, simulation studies with FDA-employed healthcare providers to test their response to proposed names, and consideration of possible failures, errors, or name confusion when it comes to prescribing, ordering, dispensing or administering the drug."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html26","cntnt":{"mrkup":"“There’s a reason why there’s a bit of wackiness when it comes to drug names,” Breen says. That’s because “it has become almost a survival of the fittest not necessarily from brand-building or commercial potential but from surviving the [name] approval process.”"},"type":"p"},{"id":"html27","cntnt":{"mrkup":"Cases of mistaken identity"},"type":"h2"},{"id":"html28","cntnt":{"mrkup":"According to a 2018 report by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices, of the 6,206 medication-related errors reported to the ISMP between 2012 and 2016, nearly 10 percent were related to drug name confusion. That was a significant improvement from reports submitted between 2000 and 2004 in which 20 percent of medication errors were related to drug name confusion. These errors can occur as a doctor writes a prescription, as a pharmacist dispenses a drug, when a nurse administers, or when a patient takes medications—if they have two with similar-sounding names, for instance."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html29","cntnt":{"mrkup":"Among the examples of look-alike, sound-alike drug names that are often confused for each other are: Adderall and Inderal; Celebrex, Celexa, and Cerebyx; Paxil and Taxol; Zyrtec and Zantac. These are just a few examples from the Institute for Safe Medication Practices’ lengthy list of drug names that are frequently confused."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html30","cntnt":{"mrkup":"Between 2000 and 2009, the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) received approximately 126,000 reports of medication errors, “some of which are directly related to the similar sound and appearance of drug name pairs.” "},"type":"p"},{"id":"html31","cntnt":{"mrkup":"When name-related drug errors come to light, the FDA will sometimes ask a company to rename a medicine. This happened in 1990, in the case of Losec (for heartburn) and Lasix (a diuretic); subsequently, Losec was renamed Prilosec. In 2010, after reports of dispensing errors were made to the FDA, Kapidex (a heartburn drug) was renamed Dexilant to avoid confusion with Casodex (a cancer drug) and Kadian (a narcotic). And in 2016 the FDA approved a name change for Brintellix (an antidepressant) to Trintellix, in order to reduce the risk of confusion with Brilinta (a blood-thinning drug)."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html32","cntnt":{"mrkup":"How does the FDA decide which drug’s name should be changed? “The one that was approved last has to change its name,” Bridges says. “You can imagine how this would affect a company—after spending all that money developing and marketing a name, then they have to change it.”"},"type":"p"},{"id":"html33","cntnt":{"mrkup":"Meanwhile, the FDA continues to update its guidelines and standards for evaluating drug name safety, Martinez says. “The regulatory landscape is always evolving,” she adds, in an effort to avoid brand names that are potentially problematic. The FDA has a monitoring system called MedWatch to track both adverse effects from drugs as well as medication errors, including name confusion, Bridges notes."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html34","cntnt":{"mrkup":"Seeking brand names with staying power "},"type":"h2"},{"id":"html35","cntnt":{"mrkup":"Just as brands like Kleenex and Xerox became synonymous with their products, a similar phenomenon sometimes happens with drugs. Over time, some drug brand names—such as Viagra, Xanax, Botox, and Lipitor—have become leaders in their categories, household words, and linked with their intended purpose. “People use them more often in their everyday vernacular than most other drugs,” Martinez says."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html36","cntnt":{"mrkup":"Sometimes brand names stick in the public’s mind and sometimes they don’t. Take the vaccines for COVID-19 as an example: Most people know if they received the Pfizer or the Moderna vaccine and were able to request subsequent vaccines or boosters accordingly. However, most people don’t ask for the Pfizer vaccine by its brand name, Comirnaty, or the Moderna vaccine by its marketed name, Spikevax, after these drugs earned full approval from the FDA."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html37","cntnt":{"mrkup":"To their credit, the names do evoke associations with how the vaccines work: COVID and mRNA for COMIRNATY; and the mechanism of action, using an mRNA vaccine to trigger production of the spike protein, for Spikevax."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html38","cntnt":{"mrkup":"The take-home message"},"type":"h2"},{"id":"html39","cntnt":{"mrkup":"Besides being intriguing, understanding what goes into naming a drug and how it might relate to the actual product may help you avoid your own name-confusion at the drugstore. If you start to think of Zantac as a drug that combats stomach acid—hence, the -ac at the end—you’ll be less likely to confuse it with the antihistamine Zyrtec (a look-alike name) or the benzodiazepine Xanax (a sound-alike name)."},"type":"p"},{"id":"html40","cntnt":{"mrkup":"“We often try to build in layers of meaning to drug brand names,” Piergrossi says. “The more we can encode multiple concepts that relate to the product’s attributes or benefits without sounding forced or contrived, that’s the ideal scenario.” It’s true for pharmaceutical companies, health-care professionals, and consumers, alike."},"type":"p"}],"cid":"drn:src:natgeo:unison::prod:908389f1-ab32-4753-9c03-23b6ca1e078a","cntrbGrp":[{"contributors":[{"displayName":"Stacey Colino"}],"title":"By","rl":"Writer"}],"mode":"richtext","enableAds":true,"endbug":true,"hsImmrsvLd":true,"isMetered":true,"isUserAuthed":false,"mdDt":"2022-06-10T15:03:52.360Z","readTime":"11 min read","schma":{"athrs":[{"name":"Stacey Colino"}],"cnnicl":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/how-drugmakers-come-up-with-evocative-brand-names-like-viagra-and-lunesta","kywrds":"Viagra, Lunesta, Pfizer, vaccine","lg":"https://assets-cdn.nationalgeographic.com/natgeo/static/default.NG.logo.dark.jpg","pblshr":"National Geographic","sclDsc":"There’s an art and a science to naming pharmaceutical drugs. Here’s what is embedded in the name on the label—and why","sclImg":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_16x9.jpg?w=1200","sclTtl":"How drugmakers come up with evocative brand names like Viagra and Lunesta"},"sctn":"Science","shrURLs":{"fbIcon":"facebook","fb":"https://www.facebook.com/sharer.php?u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nationalgeographic.com%2Fscience%2Farticle%2Fhow-drugmakers-come-up-with-evocative-brand-names-like-viagra-and-lunesta","fbAriaLabel":"article.facebookShare.ariaLabel","fbLabel":"article.facebookShare.label","fbButtonTracking":{"event_name":"share","share_content_type":"article","content_title":"how drugmakers come up with evocative brand names like viagra and lunesta","share_method":"facebook"},"emailIcon":"email__filled","email":"mailto:?subject=How%20drugmakers%20come%20up%20with%20evocative%20brand%20names%20like%20Viagra%20and%20Lunesta&body=There%E2%80%99s%20an%20art%20and%20a%20science%20to%20naming%20pharmaceutical%20drugs.%20Here%E2%80%99s%20what%20is%20embedded%20in%20the%20name%20on%20the%20label%E2%80%94and%20why%0A%0Ahttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.nationalgeographic.com%2Fscience%2Farticle%2Fhow-drugmakers-come-up-with-evocative-brand-names-like-viagra-and-lunesta","emailLabel":"Email","emailButtonTracking":{"event_name":"share","share_content_type":"article","content_title":"how drugmakers come up with evocative brand names like viagra and lunesta","share_method":"email"},"twitter":"https://twitter.com/intent/tweet?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nationalgeographic.com%2Fscience%2Farticle%2Fhow-drugmakers-come-up-with-evocative-brand-names-like-viagra-and-lunesta&text=How%20drugmakers%20come%20up%20with%20evocative%20brand%20names%20like%20Viagra%20and%20Lunesta&via=NatGeo","twitterLabel":"Tweet","twitterButtonTracking":{"event_name":"share","share_content_type":"article","content_title":"how drugmakers come up with evocative brand names like viagra and lunesta","share_method":"twitter"}},"wrdcnt":2264,"amplnk":"https://api.nationalgeographic.com/distribution/public/amp/science/article/how-drugmakers-come-up-with-evocative-brand-names-like-viagra-and-lunesta","pbDt":"2022-06-10T15:05:46.260Z","dt":"2022-06-10T15:05:46.260Z"}]}],"cmsType":"ArticleBodyFrame"},{"id":"email-sticky-footer-frame1","mods":[{"id":"1695a8e9-54f6-4370-b124-31d9aaf89dac","cmsType":"StackModule","align":"left","edgs":[{"id":"6d05472e-f86d-4e24-980e-2e0d6d342f67","cmsType":"EmailStickyFooterTile","title":"Enter your email to continue reading","errorMessage":"Please enter a valid e-mail address.","mrktngMeta":{"cpgnCd":"20220405_global_email wall_science"},"subtitle":"Breaking discoveries and timely explainers delivered to your inbox—unsubscribe any time. Plus, unlock 3 free articles per month.","success":{"description":"

You have 3 free articles left this month. SUBSCRIBE NOW to get unlimited digital access to National Geographic.

","header":"Thanks for signing up!","footer":"Watch your inbox over the next few days for photos, stories, and special offers from us."},"submitButton":"Sign Up","closeableGeos":["uk"]}]}]},{"id":"paywall-meter-frame1","mods":[{"id":"paywall-meter-frame1-module1","cmsType":"StackModule","align":"left","edgs":[{"id":"paywall-meter-frame1-module1-tile1","cmsType":"PaywallMeterTile","heading":"Exploration is just a click away.","description":"Subscribe to get unlimited digital access to National Geographic.","cta":{"text":"Subscribe Now","url":"https://ngmdomsubs.nationalgeographic.com/servlet/OrdersGateway?cds_mag_code=NGM&cds_page_id=262246","target":"_self"},"image":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/6333a603-7ecc-4d2c-acbc-7c6f031cfe0f/ngm-iphone.png"}]},"campaignName":"20211001_US_paywall_counter_no_tote"}]}]},null,{"id":"natgeo-web-template-readthisnext-frame","mods":[{"id":"natgeo-web-template-readthisnext-module","cmsType":"RecirculationGridModule","itemTruncate":{"description":4,"title":4},"contentList":[{"description":"H.M.S. Gloucester sank 340 years ago while carrying the future King of England.","img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.5103244837758112,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/21eb03c5-a1b3-4853-bb46-5031b9a9879e/Brothers-measuring-cannon3-Norfolk-Historic-Shipwrecks-.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/21eb03c5-a1b3-4853-bb46-5031b9a9879e/Brothers-measuring-cannon3-Norfolk-Historic-Shipwrecks-_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/21eb03c5-a1b3-4853-bb46-5031b9a9879e/Brothers-measuring-cannon3-Norfolk-Historic-Shipwrecks-_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/21eb03c5-a1b3-4853-bb46-5031b9a9879e/Brothers-measuring-cannon3-Norfolk-Historic-Shipwrecks-_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/21eb03c5-a1b3-4853-bb46-5031b9a9879e/Brothers-measuring-cannon3-Norfolk-Historic-Shipwrecks-_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/21eb03c5-a1b3-4853-bb46-5031b9a9879e/Brothers-measuring-cannon3-Norfolk-Historic-Shipwrecks-_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/21eb03c5-a1b3-4853-bb46-5031b9a9879e/Brothers-measuring-cannon3-Norfolk-Historic-Shipwrecks-_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/21eb03c5-a1b3-4853-bb46-5031b9a9879e/Brothers-measuring-cannon3-Norfolk-Historic-Shipwrecks-_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/21eb03c5-a1b3-4853-bb46-5031b9a9879e/Brothers-measuring-cannon3-Norfolk-Historic-Shipwrecks-","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/21eb03c5-a1b3-4853-bb46-5031b9a9879e/Brothers-measuring-cannon3-Norfolk-Historic-Shipwrecks-.jpg","altText":"men measuring cannons on a shipwreck in England","crdt":"Photograph courtesy Norfolk Historic Shipwrecks","dsc":"Brothers measuring cannon.jpgs Lincoln Barnwell on the left and Julian Barnwell on the right","ext":"jpg","ratio":"3x2"},"isFeatured":true,"sections":[{"name":"History & Culture","id":"b0c8dd52-23a8-34c0-a940-f46792bc9e70","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history"}],"headline":"Shipwreck of royal 'party boat' revealed","link":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/culture/article/shipwreck-of-royal-party-boat-revealed"},{"description":"Why bears know when it’s trash day, coyotes learned to look both ways before crossing the street, and raccoons can untie bungee cords.","img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.5003663003663004,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f4b6a210-f929-4b1a-9c80-945313fc694d/MM8622_191215_03428.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f4b6a210-f929-4b1a-9c80-945313fc694d/MM8622_191215_03428_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f4b6a210-f929-4b1a-9c80-945313fc694d/MM8622_191215_03428_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f4b6a210-f929-4b1a-9c80-945313fc694d/MM8622_191215_03428_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f4b6a210-f929-4b1a-9c80-945313fc694d/MM8622_191215_03428_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f4b6a210-f929-4b1a-9c80-945313fc694d/MM8622_191215_03428_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f4b6a210-f929-4b1a-9c80-945313fc694d/MM8622_191215_03428_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f4b6a210-f929-4b1a-9c80-945313fc694d/MM8622_191215_03428_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f4b6a210-f929-4b1a-9c80-945313fc694d/MM8622_191215_03428","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f4b6a210-f929-4b1a-9c80-945313fc694d/MM8622_191215_03428.jpg","altText":"Picture of","crdt":"Photograph by Corey Arnold","dsc":"A radio-collared coyote crosses a railroad bridge in Chicago, home to as many as 4,000 of the western canines. Researchers are discovering that city animals are often craftier at tackling challenges than their rural counterparts.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"MM8622_191215_03428"},"sections":[{"name":"Magazine","id":"9af83c1e-1fdc-3710-b252-c42eedb1b7c1","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine"}],"headline":"Wild animals are adapting to city life in surprising ways","link":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/article/why-urban-bears-know-when-its-trash-day-feature"},{"description":"The North American population, which may be listed under the Endangered Species Act, is still plentiful, according to citizen science data.","img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.5717574827321565,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669.jpg","altText":"Picture of Monarch butterflies flying amongst the forest canopy.","crdt":"Photograph by Jaime Rojo","dsc":"Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus) at Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Michoacan, Mexico.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"Monarch_butterflies_flying"},"sections":[{"name":"Animals","id":"fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals"}],"headline":"Monarchs may be doing better than thought, study suggests","link":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/monarch-butterflies-may-be-doing-better-than-thought"},{"description":"The voracious herbivores are being deployed to clear invasive plants throughout wildlands as another catastrophic fire season looms.","img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":0.66650390625,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671.jpg","crdt":"Photograph by ROBYN BECK/AFP via Getty Images","dsc":"Goats eat vegetation to reduce potential fuel for wildfires, July 7, 2021, in the wildland/urban interface in Glendale, California. - Their mission, should they choose to accept it, is simple: graze. Goats are an unlikely but increasingly popular weapon in California's fight against the wildfires that rage through the western US state every year.","ext":"jpg"},"sections":[{"name":"Animals","id":"fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals"}],"headline":"Goats may help prevent wildfires in California as drought worsens","link":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/goats-may-help-prevent-wildfires-in-california"}],"headline":"Read This Next"}],"cmsType":"EnhancedFrame"},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-ad-frame1","mods":[{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-ad","cmsType":"StackModule","align":"left","edgs":[{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-ad-tile","cmsType":"AdTile","pos":"infinitefeed"}]}],"cmsType":"EnhancedFrame"},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1","fullWidth":true,"mods":[{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-headline","cmsType":"StackModule","align":"left","edgs":[{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-headline-tile","cmsType":"HeadlineTile","heading":"Go Further"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals","cmsType":"CarouselModule","centerHeading":true,"edgs":[{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile_34f666d3-c9f8-4d55-b3ee-973a07f51dc3","description":"The North American population, which may be listed under the Endangered Species Act, is still plentiful, according to citizen science data.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/monarch-butterflies-may-be-doing-better-than-thought","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.5717574827321565,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2e2b2aa2-6117-43d9-b305-1865350c2c24/Rojo_180301_85D1669.jpg","altText":"Picture of Monarch butterflies flying amongst the forest canopy.","crdt":"Photograph by Jaime Rojo","dsc":"Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus) at Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Michoacan, Mexico.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"Monarch_butterflies_flying"},"abstract":"The North American population, which may be listed under the Endangered Species Act, is still plentiful, according to citizen science data.","title":"Monarchs may be doing better than thought, study suggests","tags":[{"name":"Animals","id":"fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile_347085ce-246d-42a5-b307-22da44243a98","description":"The voracious herbivores are being deployed to clear invasive plants throughout wildlands as another catastrophic fire season looms.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/goats-may-help-prevent-wildfires-in-california","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":0.66650390625,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/1eda2eaa-2909-4f7d-ba12-f0967fd0d5c6/GettyImages-1233933671.jpg","crdt":"Photograph by ROBYN BECK/AFP via Getty Images","dsc":"Goats eat vegetation to reduce potential fuel for wildfires, July 7, 2021, in the wildland/urban interface in Glendale, California. - Their mission, should they choose to accept it, is simple: graze. Goats are an unlikely but increasingly popular weapon in California's fight against the wildfires that rage through the western US state every year.","ext":"jpg"},"abstract":"The voracious herbivores are being deployed to clear invasive plants throughout wildlands as another catastrophic fire season looms.","title":"Goats may help prevent wildfires in California as drought worsens","tags":[{"name":"Animals","id":"fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile_d2b189a9-fe37-4561-b12e-6aca0ff59dea","description":"Is it instinct or spectacle? Drought, desperation, and tourism combine to create a surprising tableau.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/moroccos-tree-climbing-goats","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.0004885197850513,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/147a6ce3-bf13-42dd-bf18-25a67f560cc4/h_21.00041138.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/147a6ce3-bf13-42dd-bf18-25a67f560cc4/h_21.00041138_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/147a6ce3-bf13-42dd-bf18-25a67f560cc4/h_21.00041138_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/147a6ce3-bf13-42dd-bf18-25a67f560cc4/h_21.00041138_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/147a6ce3-bf13-42dd-bf18-25a67f560cc4/h_21.00041138_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/147a6ce3-bf13-42dd-bf18-25a67f560cc4/h_21.00041138_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/147a6ce3-bf13-42dd-bf18-25a67f560cc4/h_21.00041138_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/147a6ce3-bf13-42dd-bf18-25a67f560cc4/h_21.00041138_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/147a6ce3-bf13-42dd-bf18-25a67f560cc4/h_21.00041138","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/147a6ce3-bf13-42dd-bf18-25a67f560cc4/h_21.00041138.jpg","crdt":"Photograph by Alfredo Caliz, Panos Pictures","dsc":"Fourteen goats stand in the branches of a tree in the scrub. An enterprising shepherd taught them to climb the tree to provide a photo opportunity for passing tourists. Creation Date:","ext":"jpg","ttl":"h_21.00041138"},"abstract":"Is it instinct or spectacle? Drought, desperation, and tourism combine to create a surprising tableau.","title":"The real story behind Morocco’s tree-climbing goats","tags":[{"name":"Animals","id":"fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile_0d2bf7d7-49c3-4821-b531-ee02577bb114","description":"The mysterious mass deaths that began two years ago continue to stump scientists searching for a definitive answer, leaving some worried it could happen again.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/we-still-dont-know-why-more-than-400-elephants-died-in-botswana","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.5410082768999247,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f68e40d8-0127-4884-85ed-1bb808d48e2d/h_19.00233830.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f68e40d8-0127-4884-85ed-1bb808d48e2d/h_19.00233830_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f68e40d8-0127-4884-85ed-1bb808d48e2d/h_19.00233830_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f68e40d8-0127-4884-85ed-1bb808d48e2d/h_19.00233830_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f68e40d8-0127-4884-85ed-1bb808d48e2d/h_19.00233830_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f68e40d8-0127-4884-85ed-1bb808d48e2d/h_19.00233830_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f68e40d8-0127-4884-85ed-1bb808d48e2d/h_19.00233830_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f68e40d8-0127-4884-85ed-1bb808d48e2d/h_19.00233830_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f68e40d8-0127-4884-85ed-1bb808d48e2d/h_19.00233830","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/f68e40d8-0127-4884-85ed-1bb808d48e2d/h_19.00233830.jpg","crdt":"Photograph by Stefano De Luigi, VII, Redux","dsc":"Botswana South Africa in April 2003 - Elephant. In the nation, along the Okavango Delta, there are 150,000 elephants protected","ext":"jpg","ttl":"h_19.00233830"},"abstract":"The mysterious mass deaths that began two years ago continue to stump scientists searching for a definitive answer, leaving some worried it could happen again.","title":"We still don’t know why more than 400 elephants died in Botswana","tags":[{"name":"Animals","id":"fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals"},{"name":"Wildlife Watch","id":"8de8cc4e-e0d1-3b72-8c7a-dac037e03cb4","type":"series","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/topic/wildlife-watch"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile_40046b48-c8a5-4b08-8cd7-82d67b980a7a","description":"The tiny amphibians have evolved a human-like strategy for soaring from California’s old-growth redwoods, a new study says.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/secrets-of-skydiving-salamanders-revealed","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":0.66650390625,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/667a376a-e422-44d5-b374-d3df55c97064/A.vagran_vertical.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/667a376a-e422-44d5-b374-d3df55c97064/A.vagran_vertical_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/667a376a-e422-44d5-b374-d3df55c97064/A.vagran_vertical_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/667a376a-e422-44d5-b374-d3df55c97064/A.vagran_vertical_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/667a376a-e422-44d5-b374-d3df55c97064/A.vagran_vertical_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/667a376a-e422-44d5-b374-d3df55c97064/A.vagran_vertical_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/667a376a-e422-44d5-b374-d3df55c97064/A.vagran_vertical_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/667a376a-e422-44d5-b374-d3df55c97064/A.vagran_vertical_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/667a376a-e422-44d5-b374-d3df55c97064/A.vagran_vertical","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/667a376a-e422-44d5-b374-d3df55c97064/A.vagran_vertical.jpg","altText":"Picture of an adult wandering salamander clinging to the side of a redwood tree.","crdt":"Photograph by Christian Brown","dsc":"An adult wandering salamander (Aneides vagrans) looks downward while clinging to the bark of a coast redwood tree.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"Wandering_salamander_redwood"},"abstract":"The tiny amphibians have evolved a human-like strategy for soaring from California’s old-growth redwoods, a new study says.","title":"Secrets of 'skydiving' salamanders revealed","tags":[{"name":"Animals","id":"fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals"},{"name":"Weird & Wild","id":"d158de56-f10a-3f8c-90cd-7264bfca652a","type":"series","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/topic/weird-wild"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile_f2e2e444-35ad-49e8-9d6c-64aebad9514e","description":"It took media attention to ‘chilling’ welfare violations and bipartisan calls for action before authorities intervened.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/hundreds-of-beagles-have-died-at-a-major-research-animal-breeding-facility","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.5003663003663004,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/97253d16-42e0-45a0-afcd-6fddab048bca/PETA_4.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/97253d16-42e0-45a0-afcd-6fddab048bca/PETA_4_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/97253d16-42e0-45a0-afcd-6fddab048bca/PETA_4_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/97253d16-42e0-45a0-afcd-6fddab048bca/PETA_4_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/97253d16-42e0-45a0-afcd-6fddab048bca/PETA_4_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/97253d16-42e0-45a0-afcd-6fddab048bca/PETA_4_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/97253d16-42e0-45a0-afcd-6fddab048bca/PETA_4_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/97253d16-42e0-45a0-afcd-6fddab048bca/PETA_4_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/97253d16-42e0-45a0-afcd-6fddab048bca/PETA_4","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/97253d16-42e0-45a0-afcd-6fddab048bca/PETA_4.jpg","altText":"Picture of a caged beagle with a litter of her puppies.","crdt":"Photograph by PETA","dsc":"For the final two days with their puppies, nursing mothers were intentionally deprived of food by workers—despite what a supervisor said were federal inspectors’ instructions to feed them.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"Envigo_beagle_with_pups"},"abstract":"It took media attention to ‘chilling’ welfare violations and bipartisan calls for action before authorities intervened.","title":"Hundreds of dogs died in Virginia before the USDA acted","tags":[{"name":"Animals","id":"fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals"},{"name":"Wildlife Watch","id":"8de8cc4e-e0d1-3b72-8c7a-dac037e03cb4","type":"series","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/topic/wildlife-watch"}]}],"heading":"Animals","pageInfo":{"endCursor":"NTpSRmxPUVY4d0kwbEVPa1JTVG54a2NtNDZjM0pqT201aGRHZGxienAxYm1semIyNDZPbkJ5YjJRNlpqSmxNbVUwTkRRdE16VmhaQzAwT1dVNExUbGtObU10TmpSaFpXSmhaRGsxTVRSbEkxTlBVbFE2YjNKcFoybHVZV3hRZFdKc2FYTm9aV1JFWVhSbGZERTJOVE13TlRZM01EQXdNREE9","hasNextPage":true},"templateContext":"eyJjb250ZW50VHlwZSI6IlVuaXNvbkFydGljbGVDb250ZW50IiwidmFyaWFibGVzIjp7ImluY2x1ZGVNZWRpYUNvbnRlbnRzIjoidHJ1ZSIsImxvY2F0b3IiOiIvc2NpZW5jZS9hcnRpY2xlL2hvdy1kcnVnbWFrZXJzLWNvbWUtdXAtd2l0aC1ldm9jYXRpdmUtYnJhbmQtbmFtZXMtbGlrZS12aWFncmEtYW5kLWx1bmVzdGEiLCJwb3J0Zm9saW8iOiJuYXRnZW8iLCJxdWVyeVR5cGUiOiJMT0NBVE9SIn0sIm1vZHVsZUlkIjpudWxsfQ"},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-environment","cmsType":"CarouselModule","centerHeading":true,"edgs":[{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile_e8b61115-59e6-40fa-96c5-09f14401c942","description":"As the north coast of Java, Indonesia, fades away, residents struggle to keep their town—and their history—from the same fate.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/article/their-homes-are-sinking-fast-can-their-community-survive-feature","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.5003663003663004,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/10963a33-4e2b-4e2e-85c1-125ec7abd7e8/MM9409_200624_000055.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/10963a33-4e2b-4e2e-85c1-125ec7abd7e8/MM9409_200624_000055_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/10963a33-4e2b-4e2e-85c1-125ec7abd7e8/MM9409_200624_000055_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/10963a33-4e2b-4e2e-85c1-125ec7abd7e8/MM9409_200624_000055_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/10963a33-4e2b-4e2e-85c1-125ec7abd7e8/MM9409_200624_000055_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/10963a33-4e2b-4e2e-85c1-125ec7abd7e8/MM9409_200624_000055_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/10963a33-4e2b-4e2e-85c1-125ec7abd7e8/MM9409_200624_000055_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/10963a33-4e2b-4e2e-85c1-125ec7abd7e8/MM9409_200624_000055_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/10963a33-4e2b-4e2e-85c1-125ec7abd7e8/MM9409_200624_000055","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/10963a33-4e2b-4e2e-85c1-125ec7abd7e8/MM9409_200624_000055.jpg","altText":"Picture of man pushing a wheelbarrow fully load with soil through the front entrance of his home.","crdt":"Photograph by Aji Styawan","dsc":"Hanging on is hard in Demak Regency in Central Java. After a high tide flooded the village of Purwosari for the first time in 2020, Turadi used soil to raise his floor. The coast here is subsiding up to four inches a year, partly because of groundwater pumping.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"Java Flooding-MM9409-raising-floor"},"abstract":"As the north coast of Java, Indonesia, fades away, residents struggle to keep their town—and their history—from the same fate.","title":"Their homes are sinking fast. Can their community survive?","tags":[{"name":"Magazine","id":"9af83c1e-1fdc-3710-b252-c42eedb1b7c1","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile_6ab80e11-a56d-429d-8f51-2021e6fef9a9","description":"The iconic whales are recovering from near extinction, but warming seas could force them away from historic breeding grounds.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/humpback-whales-face-a-major-setback-from-climate-change","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.5003663003663004,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/616d49ea-7a7c-43e8-9923-0e63d685173c/01_NationalGeographic_2772382.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/616d49ea-7a7c-43e8-9923-0e63d685173c/01_NationalGeographic_2772382_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/616d49ea-7a7c-43e8-9923-0e63d685173c/01_NationalGeographic_2772382_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/616d49ea-7a7c-43e8-9923-0e63d685173c/01_NationalGeographic_2772382_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/616d49ea-7a7c-43e8-9923-0e63d685173c/01_NationalGeographic_2772382_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/616d49ea-7a7c-43e8-9923-0e63d685173c/01_NationalGeographic_2772382_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/616d49ea-7a7c-43e8-9923-0e63d685173c/01_NationalGeographic_2772382_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/616d49ea-7a7c-43e8-9923-0e63d685173c/01_NationalGeographic_2772382_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/616d49ea-7a7c-43e8-9923-0e63d685173c/01_NationalGeographic_2772382","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/616d49ea-7a7c-43e8-9923-0e63d685173c/01_NationalGeographic_2772382.jpg","crdt":"Photograph by Brian Skerry, National Geographic Creative","dsc":"A mother humpback an calf swim in a protected bay in Vava'u, Kingdom of Tonga.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"Whale 01"},"abstract":"The iconic whales are recovering from near extinction, but warming seas could force them away from historic breeding grounds.","title":"Humpback whales face a major setback from climate change","tags":[{"name":"Environment","id":"623ce370-3e67-3fb2-b9a5-070ceb9b2de5","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile_69d1f533-b6cd-4941-b17f-8a39b462413a","description":"The royal family is called on to help recover Britain's biodiversity, starting with royal properties.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/queen-elizabeth-owns-most-of-the-uk-seabed-slowing-conservation","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.502439024390244,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/24a4ffa1-1bfb-48b2-976a-6d97883c2bc5/GettyImages-1157595309.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/24a4ffa1-1bfb-48b2-976a-6d97883c2bc5/GettyImages-1157595309_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/24a4ffa1-1bfb-48b2-976a-6d97883c2bc5/GettyImages-1157595309_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/24a4ffa1-1bfb-48b2-976a-6d97883c2bc5/GettyImages-1157595309_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/24a4ffa1-1bfb-48b2-976a-6d97883c2bc5/GettyImages-1157595309_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/24a4ffa1-1bfb-48b2-976a-6d97883c2bc5/GettyImages-1157595309_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/24a4ffa1-1bfb-48b2-976a-6d97883c2bc5/GettyImages-1157595309_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/24a4ffa1-1bfb-48b2-976a-6d97883c2bc5/GettyImages-1157595309_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/24a4ffa1-1bfb-48b2-976a-6d97883c2bc5/GettyImages-1157595309","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/24a4ffa1-1bfb-48b2-976a-6d97883c2bc5/GettyImages-1157595309.jpg","altText":"Beachgoers relax by the sea in Brighton","crdt":"Photograph by Glyn Kirk, AFP/Getty Images","dsc":"Beachgoers relax by the sea in Brighton, southern England, on July 24, 2019 during a heatwave in Britain. - Temperatures soared above 30C (86F) in Britain on July 24 with forecasters predicting temperatures as high as to 37C (96.8F) before the end of the week as a heatwave gripped Europe.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"brighton-beach"},"abstract":"The royal family is called on to help recover Britain's biodiversity, starting with royal properties.","title":"The Queen owns Britain's seabed. That's hindering conservation.","tags":[{"name":"Environment","id":"623ce370-3e67-3fb2-b9a5-070ceb9b2de5","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile_38fc6488-1e62-4372-bd50-f29a08ecd416","description":"These non-native species are a problem across the United States. Foraging for them can help ecosystems heal and help you make tasty treats.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/how-to-fight-invasive-plants-one-bite-at-a-time","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d393d91b-0e8b-455c-a89d-c0de8a8622cf/GettyImages-1209039677.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d393d91b-0e8b-455c-a89d-c0de8a8622cf/GettyImages-1209039677_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d393d91b-0e8b-455c-a89d-c0de8a8622cf/GettyImages-1209039677_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d393d91b-0e8b-455c-a89d-c0de8a8622cf/GettyImages-1209039677_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d393d91b-0e8b-455c-a89d-c0de8a8622cf/GettyImages-1209039677_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d393d91b-0e8b-455c-a89d-c0de8a8622cf/GettyImages-1209039677_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d393d91b-0e8b-455c-a89d-c0de8a8622cf/GettyImages-1209039677_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d393d91b-0e8b-455c-a89d-c0de8a8622cf/GettyImages-1209039677_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d393d91b-0e8b-455c-a89d-c0de8a8622cf/GettyImages-1209039677","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d393d91b-0e8b-455c-a89d-c0de8a8622cf/GettyImages-1209039677.jpg","altText":"Boy reaching out to pick blackberries","crdt":"Photograph by Paul Mansfield Photography / Getty Images","dsc":"One remedy for the damage caused by invasive plant species, such as Himalayan blackberry? Pick them for use in meals and snacks.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"departments-07.2022-PP-blackberry-picking"},"abstract":"These non-native species are a problem across the United States. Foraging for them can help ecosystems heal and help you make tasty treats.","title":"How to fight invasive plants—one bite at a time","tags":[{"name":"Magazine","id":"9af83c1e-1fdc-3710-b252-c42eedb1b7c1","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine"},{"name":"Planet Possible","id":"938b311e-8648-368e-8058-12100da9e069","type":"series","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/pages/topic/planet-possible"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile_bc2b7f20-f680-4c45-8a0e-8f40bce19edc","description":"Governments, organizations, businesses and individuals are joining the fight against climate change and biodiversity loss by planting trees","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/paid-content-the-green-wave","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.8939194524874967,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9cca3b2c-9cff-4d93-a100-19ab74b5a0cb/Gamuda_Jade-Hill_environmentalists-say-future-city-planning-must-be-green.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9cca3b2c-9cff-4d93-a100-19ab74b5a0cb/Gamuda_Jade-Hill_environmentalists-say-future-city-planning-must-be-green_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9cca3b2c-9cff-4d93-a100-19ab74b5a0cb/Gamuda_Jade-Hill_environmentalists-say-future-city-planning-must-be-green_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9cca3b2c-9cff-4d93-a100-19ab74b5a0cb/Gamuda_Jade-Hill_environmentalists-say-future-city-planning-must-be-green_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9cca3b2c-9cff-4d93-a100-19ab74b5a0cb/Gamuda_Jade-Hill_environmentalists-say-future-city-planning-must-be-green_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9cca3b2c-9cff-4d93-a100-19ab74b5a0cb/Gamuda_Jade-Hill_environmentalists-say-future-city-planning-must-be-green_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9cca3b2c-9cff-4d93-a100-19ab74b5a0cb/Gamuda_Jade-Hill_environmentalists-say-future-city-planning-must-be-green_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9cca3b2c-9cff-4d93-a100-19ab74b5a0cb/Gamuda_Jade-Hill_environmentalists-say-future-city-planning-must-be-green_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9cca3b2c-9cff-4d93-a100-19ab74b5a0cb/Gamuda_Jade-Hill_environmentalists-say-future-city-planning-must-be-green","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9cca3b2c-9cff-4d93-a100-19ab74b5a0cb/Gamuda_Jade-Hill_environmentalists-say-future-city-planning-must-be-green.jpg","altText":"Image of Jade Hills, a planned town by Gamuda Land","crdt":"Photograph courtesy Gamuda Land","dsc":"With the pressures on our natural environment continuing to increase, all future city planning must be green, say environmentalists.","ext":"jpg"},"abstract":"Governments, organizations, businesses and individuals are joining the fight against climate change and biodiversity loss by planting trees","title":"The green wave","tags":["Paid Content"]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile_a83a55ed-14ad-4ba7-8c7d-44ca0dc29d6c","description":"Heat, drought, disease—climate-forced changes are pushing California tomato production into a tough spot. But our future pizzas are not yet lost.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/climate-change-is-coming-for-your-pizza-sauce","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.0556701030927835,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/92e0f0d0-6082-40c9-9738-bb739b8ecb3c/002_GettyImages-157684655.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/92e0f0d0-6082-40c9-9738-bb739b8ecb3c/002_GettyImages-157684655_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/92e0f0d0-6082-40c9-9738-bb739b8ecb3c/002_GettyImages-157684655_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/92e0f0d0-6082-40c9-9738-bb739b8ecb3c/002_GettyImages-157684655_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/92e0f0d0-6082-40c9-9738-bb739b8ecb3c/002_GettyImages-157684655_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/92e0f0d0-6082-40c9-9738-bb739b8ecb3c/002_GettyImages-157684655_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/92e0f0d0-6082-40c9-9738-bb739b8ecb3c/002_GettyImages-157684655_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/92e0f0d0-6082-40c9-9738-bb739b8ecb3c/002_GettyImages-157684655_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/92e0f0d0-6082-40c9-9738-bb739b8ecb3c/002_GettyImages-157684655","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/92e0f0d0-6082-40c9-9738-bb739b8ecb3c/002_GettyImages-157684655.jpg","crdt":"Photograph by ac bnphotos, Getty Images","dsc":"Smashed Tomato","ext":"jpg","ttl":"tomato 01"},"abstract":"Heat, drought, disease—climate-forced changes are pushing California tomato production into a tough spot. But our future pizzas are not yet lost.","title":"Climate change is coming for your pizza sauce","tags":[{"name":"Environment","id":"623ce370-3e67-3fb2-b9a5-070ceb9b2de5","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment"}]}],"heading":"Environment","pageInfo":{"endCursor":"NTpSRmxPUVY4d0kwbEVPa1JTVG54a2NtNDZjM0pqT201aGRHZGxienAxYm1semIyNDZPbkJ5YjJRNllUZ3pZVFUxWldRdE1UUmhaQzAwWW1FM0xUaGpOMlF0TkRSallUQmtZekk1WkRaakkxTlBVbFE2YjNKcFoybHVZV3hRZFdKc2FYTm9aV1JFWVhSbGZERTJOVFF4TmpRd01EQXdNREE9","hasNextPage":true},"templateContext":"eyJjb250ZW50VHlwZSI6IlVuaXNvbkFydGljbGVDb250ZW50IiwidmFyaWFibGVzIjp7ImluY2x1ZGVNZWRpYUNvbnRlbnRzIjoidHJ1ZSIsImxvY2F0b3IiOiIvc2NpZW5jZS9hcnRpY2xlL2hvdy1kcnVnbWFrZXJzLWNvbWUtdXAtd2l0aC1ldm9jYXRpdmUtYnJhbmQtbmFtZXMtbGlrZS12aWFncmEtYW5kLWx1bmVzdGEiLCJwb3J0Zm9saW8iOiJuYXRnZW8iLCJxdWVyeVR5cGUiOiJMT0NBVE9SIn0sIm1vZHVsZUlkIjpudWxsfQ"},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history","cmsType":"CarouselModule","centerHeading":true,"edgs":[{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile_dc4210d5-341a-45ac-83b1-479a7ae9e41e","description":"Five thousand years ago in North Africa, an ambitious king, known today as Narmer, unified two lands into the world's first great territorial state—Egypt.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/history-magazine/article/who-was-egypts-first-pharaoh","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.7808695652173914,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b59f4e31-ebd6-45e7-a551-f96ea1c0596c/Pharaohlead.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b59f4e31-ebd6-45e7-a551-f96ea1c0596c/Pharaohlead_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b59f4e31-ebd6-45e7-a551-f96ea1c0596c/Pharaohlead_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b59f4e31-ebd6-45e7-a551-f96ea1c0596c/Pharaohlead_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b59f4e31-ebd6-45e7-a551-f96ea1c0596c/Pharaohlead_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b59f4e31-ebd6-45e7-a551-f96ea1c0596c/Pharaohlead_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b59f4e31-ebd6-45e7-a551-f96ea1c0596c/Pharaohlead_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b59f4e31-ebd6-45e7-a551-f96ea1c0596c/Pharaohlead_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b59f4e31-ebd6-45e7-a551-f96ea1c0596c/Pharaohlead","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b59f4e31-ebd6-45e7-a551-f96ea1c0596c/Pharaohlead.jpg","altText":"The Narmer Palette, from circa 3100 B.C. and housed at the Egyptian Museum, depicts the king, who wears the red crown of Lower Egypt.","crdt":"Scala, Florence","dsc":"The Narmer Palette, from circa 3100 B.C. and housed at the Egyptian Museum, depicts the king, who wears the red crown of Lower Egypt.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"Founder of a dynasty"},"abstract":"Five thousand years ago in North Africa, an ambitious king, known today as Narmer, unified two lands into the world's first great territorial state—Egypt.","title":"Who was Egypt's first pharaoh?","tags":[{"name":"History Magazine","id":"9e8034f6-2e16-3b86-998b-56f8ff9dffb7","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/magazine"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile_9e6f9c3e-2599-4115-83a3-281c4cfe8512","description":"The pyramids in Egypt are more famous, but the ones in Sudan hide royal burial sites that archaeologists can explore—as long as they don’t mind swimming.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/article/what-its-like-to-scuba-dive-under-pyramids","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":0.8358974358974359,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/fc1cba99-3363-4279-b591-fad5d8423c02/MM9247_200202_06229.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/fc1cba99-3363-4279-b591-fad5d8423c02/MM9247_200202_06229_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/fc1cba99-3363-4279-b591-fad5d8423c02/MM9247_200202_06229_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/fc1cba99-3363-4279-b591-fad5d8423c02/MM9247_200202_06229_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/fc1cba99-3363-4279-b591-fad5d8423c02/MM9247_200202_06229_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/fc1cba99-3363-4279-b591-fad5d8423c02/MM9247_200202_06229_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/fc1cba99-3363-4279-b591-fad5d8423c02/MM9247_200202_06229_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/fc1cba99-3363-4279-b591-fad5d8423c02/MM9247_200202_06229_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/fc1cba99-3363-4279-b591-fad5d8423c02/MM9247_200202_06229","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/fc1cba99-3363-4279-b591-fad5d8423c02/MM9247_200202_06229.jpg","altText":"Picture of one one scuba diver on vertical wall of the flooded tunnel, and another one already in the water.","crdt":"Photograph by NICHOLE SOBECKI","dsc":"Archaeologist Pearce Paul Creasman prepares to enter a flooded tomb in the necropolis of Nuri, in Sudan.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"departments-07.2022-TTL-NICHOLE-SOBECKI-flooded-tomb"},"abstract":"The pyramids in Egypt are more famous, but the ones in Sudan hide royal burial sites that archaeologists can explore—as long as they don’t mind swimming.","title":"What it’s like to scuba dive under pyramids","tags":[{"name":"Magazine","id":"9af83c1e-1fdc-3710-b252-c42eedb1b7c1","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine"},{"name":"Through the Lens","id":"cef4fda4-4bb4-388d-9ac7-648bf6866389","type":"series","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/through-the-lens/"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile_f986ec8e-b7cf-4404-a52b-4dfee51c3c23","description":"From royal rings to humble rocks, mystical objects were believed to shape human events throughout history. The powers they held reveals much about the hopes and fears of the people who believed in them.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/history-magazine/article/every-little-thing-they-did-was-magic-or-was-it","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.257985257985258,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a42e371e-456b-411f-99ec-3a6c42693686/Objects2.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a42e371e-456b-411f-99ec-3a6c42693686/Objects2_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a42e371e-456b-411f-99ec-3a6c42693686/Objects2_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a42e371e-456b-411f-99ec-3a6c42693686/Objects2_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a42e371e-456b-411f-99ec-3a6c42693686/Objects2_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a42e371e-456b-411f-99ec-3a6c42693686/Objects2_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a42e371e-456b-411f-99ec-3a6c42693686/Objects2_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a42e371e-456b-411f-99ec-3a6c42693686/Objects2_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a42e371e-456b-411f-99ec-3a6c42693686/Objects2","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a42e371e-456b-411f-99ec-3a6c42693686/Objects2.jpg","altText":"The deceased stands with offerings before the god Osiris.","crdt":"Image courtesy of Alfredo Dagli Orti/Shutterstock","dsc":"The deceased stands with offerings before the god Osiris.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"Opener"},"abstract":"From royal rings to humble rocks, mystical objects were believed to shape human events throughout history. The powers they held reveals much about the hopes and fears of the people who believed in them.","title":"Every little thing they did was magic … or was it?","tags":[{"name":"History Magazine","id":"9e8034f6-2e16-3b86-998b-56f8ff9dffb7","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/magazine"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile_f4e41e80-b096-4a43-b52c-c7126eb35fc9","description":"Elizabeth II's 70-year 'platinum' reign has set records, but it was the first Queen Elizabeth who set the standard for monarchs who followed.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/history-magazine/article/queen-elizabeths-rule-set-a-golden-legacy-for-britain","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.125893347993403,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a5b680b4-9860-4ff7-93cd-074e129abb49/QueenLead2.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a5b680b4-9860-4ff7-93cd-074e129abb49/QueenLead2_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a5b680b4-9860-4ff7-93cd-074e129abb49/QueenLead2_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a5b680b4-9860-4ff7-93cd-074e129abb49/QueenLead2_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a5b680b4-9860-4ff7-93cd-074e129abb49/QueenLead2_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a5b680b4-9860-4ff7-93cd-074e129abb49/QueenLead2_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a5b680b4-9860-4ff7-93cd-074e129abb49/QueenLead2_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a5b680b4-9860-4ff7-93cd-074e129abb49/QueenLead2_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a5b680b4-9860-4ff7-93cd-074e129abb49/QueenLead2","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a5b680b4-9860-4ff7-93cd-074e129abb49/QueenLead2.jpg","altText":"A portrait of Elizabeth I (circa 1600) in the golden robes she wore at her coronation in 1559.","crdt":"Image courtesy of National Portrait Gallery, London, UK/Bridgeman Images","dsc":"A portrait of Elizabeth I (circa 1600) in the golden robes she wore at her coronation in 1559.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"OPENER"},"abstract":"Elizabeth II's 70-year 'platinum' reign has set records, but it was the first Queen Elizabeth who set the standard for monarchs who followed.","title":"Queen Elizabeth I's rule set a golden legacy for Britain","tags":[{"name":"History Magazine","id":"9e8034f6-2e16-3b86-998b-56f8ff9dffb7","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/magazine"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile_151d52af-15da-4046-a53b-8fe5b0518c85","description":"As a star of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show, the 19th-century icon inspired TV shows, movies, and musicals. But her fame also has led to conflicting accounts of her life.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/article/the-true-story-of-annie-oakley-legendary-sharpshooter","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":0.77587890625,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/6d80399c-2433-43a8-91f9-4b11cb02c8b1/GettyImages-146117887.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/6d80399c-2433-43a8-91f9-4b11cb02c8b1/GettyImages-146117887_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/6d80399c-2433-43a8-91f9-4b11cb02c8b1/GettyImages-146117887_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/6d80399c-2433-43a8-91f9-4b11cb02c8b1/GettyImages-146117887_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/6d80399c-2433-43a8-91f9-4b11cb02c8b1/GettyImages-146117887_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/6d80399c-2433-43a8-91f9-4b11cb02c8b1/GettyImages-146117887_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/6d80399c-2433-43a8-91f9-4b11cb02c8b1/GettyImages-146117887_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/6d80399c-2433-43a8-91f9-4b11cb02c8b1/GettyImages-146117887_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/6d80399c-2433-43a8-91f9-4b11cb02c8b1/GettyImages-146117887","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/6d80399c-2433-43a8-91f9-4b11cb02c8b1/GettyImages-146117887.jpg","altText":"black and white photo of Annie Oakley holding a gun","crdt":"Photograph via Underwood Archives/Getty","dsc":"A portrait of sharpshooter Annie Oakley holding a shotgun, mid 1880s. (Photo by Underwood Archives/Getty Images)","ext":"jpg"},"abstract":"As a star of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show, the 19th-century icon inspired TV shows, movies, and musicals. But her fame also has led to conflicting accounts of her life.","title":"The true story of Annie Oakley, legendary sharpshooter","tags":[{"name":"History & Culture","id":"b0c8dd52-23a8-34c0-a940-f46792bc9e70","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile_e24460fc-0616-4a3f-82ac-e124aa89f17e","description":"A Christian knight confronts life's temptations in Albrecht Dürer's 1513 engraving, considered by many to be the pinnacle of printmaking.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/history-magazine/article/knight-death-and-the-devil-elevated-this-artist-to-a-renaissance-master","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":0.75732421875,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0a4e713e-1088-4af3-9f31-3485d50c32cf/Durer2.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0a4e713e-1088-4af3-9f31-3485d50c32cf/Durer2_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0a4e713e-1088-4af3-9f31-3485d50c32cf/Durer2_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0a4e713e-1088-4af3-9f31-3485d50c32cf/Durer2_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0a4e713e-1088-4af3-9f31-3485d50c32cf/Durer2_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0a4e713e-1088-4af3-9f31-3485d50c32cf/Durer2_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0a4e713e-1088-4af3-9f31-3485d50c32cf/Durer2_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0a4e713e-1088-4af3-9f31-3485d50c32cf/Durer2_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0a4e713e-1088-4af3-9f31-3485d50c32cf/Durer2","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0a4e713e-1088-4af3-9f31-3485d50c32cf/Durer2.jpg","altText":"Considered one of the most technically brilliant and expressive pieces of printmaking, this copperplate engraving was produced by the Nürnberg artist Albrecht Dürer in 1513.","crdt":"Image courtesy of Alamy/ACI","dsc":"Considered one of the most technically brilliant and expressive pieces of printmaking, this copperplate engraving was produced by the Nürnberg artist Albrecht Dürer in 1513.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"Knight, death, and the devil"},"abstract":"A Christian knight confronts life's temptations in Albrecht Dürer's 1513 engraving, considered by many to be the pinnacle of printmaking.","title":"‘Knight, Death, and the Devil’ elevated this artist to a Renaissance master","tags":[{"name":"History Magazine","id":"9e8034f6-2e16-3b86-998b-56f8ff9dffb7","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/magazine"}]}],"heading":"History & Culture","pageInfo":{"endCursor":"NTpSRmxPUVY4d0kwbEVPa1JTVG54a2NtNDZjM0pqT201aGRHZGxienAxYm1semIyNDZPbkJ5YjJRNlpUSTBORFl3Wm1NdE1EWXhOaTAwWVRObUxUZ3lZV010WlRFeU5HRmhPRGxtTVRkbEkxTlBVbFE2YjNKcFoybHVZV3hRZFdKc2FYTm9aV1JFWVhSbGZERTJOVFF3TURrMU16ZzNOVFk9","hasNextPage":true},"templateContext":"eyJjb250ZW50VHlwZSI6IlVuaXNvbkFydGljbGVDb250ZW50IiwidmFyaWFibGVzIjp7ImluY2x1ZGVNZWRpYUNvbnRlbnRzIjoidHJ1ZSIsImxvY2F0b3IiOiIvc2NpZW5jZS9hcnRpY2xlL2hvdy1kcnVnbWFrZXJzLWNvbWUtdXAtd2l0aC1ldm9jYXRpdmUtYnJhbmQtbmFtZXMtbGlrZS12aWFncmEtYW5kLWx1bmVzdGEiLCJwb3J0Zm9saW8iOiJuYXRnZW8iLCJxdWVyeVR5cGUiOiJMT0NBVE9SIn0sIm1vZHVsZUlkIjpudWxsfQ"},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science","cmsType":"CarouselModule","centerHeading":true,"edgs":[{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile_908389f1-ab32-4753-9c03-23b6ca1e078a","description":"There’s an art and a science to naming pharmaceutical drugs. Here’s what is embedded in the name on the label—and why","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/how-drugmakers-come-up-with-evocative-brand-names-like-viagra-and-lunesta","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.4970760233918128,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013.jpg","altText":"Picture of white pills","crdt":"Photograph by H.Angelica Corneliussen, 500px/Getty Images","dsc":"Closeup of many prescription drugs.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"White_pills"},"abstract":"There’s an art and a science to naming pharmaceutical drugs. Here’s what is embedded in the name on the label—and why","title":"How drugmakers come up with names like Viagra and Lunesta","tags":[{"name":"Science","id":"2af51eeb-09a8-3bcf-8467-6b2a08edb76c","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile_45d017cd-cf7c-4788-bd3e-b4d7f46217a8","description":"Scientists are learning how muscles in motion can improve cognition and shield against diseases like Alzheimer's, paving the way for new treatments.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/article/new-clues-are-revealing-why-exercise-can-keep-the-brain-healthy","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.332465842550423,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/795acbd4-f32e-4285-8a98-6ed6f08279b7/NationalGeographic_1558181.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/795acbd4-f32e-4285-8a98-6ed6f08279b7/NationalGeographic_1558181_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/795acbd4-f32e-4285-8a98-6ed6f08279b7/NationalGeographic_1558181_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/795acbd4-f32e-4285-8a98-6ed6f08279b7/NationalGeographic_1558181_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/795acbd4-f32e-4285-8a98-6ed6f08279b7/NationalGeographic_1558181_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/795acbd4-f32e-4285-8a98-6ed6f08279b7/NationalGeographic_1558181_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/795acbd4-f32e-4285-8a98-6ed6f08279b7/NationalGeographic_1558181_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/795acbd4-f32e-4285-8a98-6ed6f08279b7/NationalGeographic_1558181_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/795acbd4-f32e-4285-8a98-6ed6f08279b7/NationalGeographic_1558181","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/795acbd4-f32e-4285-8a98-6ed6f08279b7/NationalGeographic_1558181.jpg","altText":"A woman lies on her back with her legs over her head.","crdt":"Photograph by Fritz Hoffman, Nat Geo Image Collection","dsc":"An 83-year-old woman practices yoga.","ext":"jpg"},"abstract":"Scientists are learning how muscles in motion can improve cognition and shield against diseases like Alzheimer's, paving the way for new treatments.","title":"New clues are revealing why exercise can keep the brain healthy","tags":[{"name":"Science","id":"2af51eeb-09a8-3bcf-8467-6b2a08edb76c","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile_66d94935-dcde-4eda-846d-9945a7d93eff","description":"A photographic odyssey explores the places on Earth that showcase our unique planet’s evolutionary journey.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/article/these-beautiful-landscapes-hold-secrets-to-the-origins-of-life","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.5025678650036685,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/672bc9d1-833a-46d5-9dcc-77a9d98bcd3c/O_Grunewald-ORIGINES-Grilles-du-Luxembourg-08.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/672bc9d1-833a-46d5-9dcc-77a9d98bcd3c/O_Grunewald-ORIGINES-Grilles-du-Luxembourg-08_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/672bc9d1-833a-46d5-9dcc-77a9d98bcd3c/O_Grunewald-ORIGINES-Grilles-du-Luxembourg-08_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/672bc9d1-833a-46d5-9dcc-77a9d98bcd3c/O_Grunewald-ORIGINES-Grilles-du-Luxembourg-08_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/672bc9d1-833a-46d5-9dcc-77a9d98bcd3c/O_Grunewald-ORIGINES-Grilles-du-Luxembourg-08_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/672bc9d1-833a-46d5-9dcc-77a9d98bcd3c/O_Grunewald-ORIGINES-Grilles-du-Luxembourg-08_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/672bc9d1-833a-46d5-9dcc-77a9d98bcd3c/O_Grunewald-ORIGINES-Grilles-du-Luxembourg-08_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/672bc9d1-833a-46d5-9dcc-77a9d98bcd3c/O_Grunewald-ORIGINES-Grilles-du-Luxembourg-08_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/672bc9d1-833a-46d5-9dcc-77a9d98bcd3c/O_Grunewald-ORIGINES-Grilles-du-Luxembourg-08","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/672bc9d1-833a-46d5-9dcc-77a9d98bcd3c/O_Grunewald-ORIGINES-Grilles-du-Luxembourg-08.jpg","altText":"Bubbling lava looking down in a volcano","crdt":"Photograph by Olivier Grunewald","dsc":"On primeval Earth, volcanic rock formed rafts of terrestrial crust, such as these patches in a caldera of bubbling lava in tthe Nyiragongo volcano, located in the Virguna Mountains of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.","ext":"jpg"},"abstract":"A photographic odyssey explores the places on Earth that showcase our unique planet’s evolutionary journey.","title":"These beautiful landscapes hold secrets to the origins of life","tags":[{"name":"Science","id":"2af51eeb-09a8-3bcf-8467-6b2a08edb76c","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile_42d0702b-8467-4ccb-badd-23f757025253","description":"New advances are letting scientists use electrodes instead of drugs to treat dozens of diseases affecting millions of people.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/article/from-inflammation-to-depression-electricity-is-transforming-medicine","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3aaffd2-9290-40d5-920b-67c2a5b33409/HRH662.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3aaffd2-9290-40d5-920b-67c2a5b33409/HRH662_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3aaffd2-9290-40d5-920b-67c2a5b33409/HRH662_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3aaffd2-9290-40d5-920b-67c2a5b33409/HRH662_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3aaffd2-9290-40d5-920b-67c2a5b33409/HRH662_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3aaffd2-9290-40d5-920b-67c2a5b33409/HRH662_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3aaffd2-9290-40d5-920b-67c2a5b33409/HRH662_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3aaffd2-9290-40d5-920b-67c2a5b33409/HRH662_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3aaffd2-9290-40d5-920b-67c2a5b33409/HRH662","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/b3aaffd2-9290-40d5-920b-67c2a5b33409/HRH662.jpg","crdt":"Science History Images, Alamy Stock Photo","dsc":"Lateral X-ray of Deep Electrodes","ext":"jpg"},"abstract":"New advances are letting scientists use electrodes instead of drugs to treat dozens of diseases affecting millions of people.","title":"From inflammation to depression, electricity is transforming medicine","tags":[{"name":"Science","id":"2af51eeb-09a8-3bcf-8467-6b2a08edb76c","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile_ab143fc7-15fe-4c9d-bdd9-f68817b1021d","description":"Once considered a maritime myth, these towering waves can pose serious risks to ships in the open sea. Now scientists are developing ways to predict them before they strike.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/mathematicians-may-soon-be-able-to-predict-enormous-rogue-waves","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.4872912127814089,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/8ae6d109-0ab1-4cff-bc26-64e1fa30ce69/DP130155.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/8ae6d109-0ab1-4cff-bc26-64e1fa30ce69/DP130155_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/8ae6d109-0ab1-4cff-bc26-64e1fa30ce69/DP130155_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/8ae6d109-0ab1-4cff-bc26-64e1fa30ce69/DP130155_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/8ae6d109-0ab1-4cff-bc26-64e1fa30ce69/DP130155_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/8ae6d109-0ab1-4cff-bc26-64e1fa30ce69/DP130155_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/8ae6d109-0ab1-4cff-bc26-64e1fa30ce69/DP130155_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/8ae6d109-0ab1-4cff-bc26-64e1fa30ce69/DP130155_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/8ae6d109-0ab1-4cff-bc26-64e1fa30ce69/DP130155","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/8ae6d109-0ab1-4cff-bc26-64e1fa30ce69/DP130155.jpg","altText":"Picture of the Great Wave off Kanagawa by Katsushika Hokusai.","crdt":"Katsushika Hokusai, The Metropolitan Museum of Art","dsc":"Katsushika Hokusai's iconic woodblock print, Under the Wave off Kanagawa, from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji, depicts a large wave many often misattribute to a tsunami. The large off-shore wave depicted is more likely an example of a rogue wave.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"Great_Wave_of_Kanagawa"},"abstract":"Once considered a maritime myth, these towering waves can pose serious risks to ships in the open sea. Now scientists are developing ways to predict them before they strike.","title":"Mathematicians may soon be able to predict enormous 'rogue waves'","tags":[{"name":"Science","id":"2af51eeb-09a8-3bcf-8467-6b2a08edb76c","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile_5b06a84c-fd26-4164-ad4b-3543fef59eeb","description":"Surprising science news including toad overpopulation, sharp-eyed sunflower pollinators, and catfish-worshipping ancient Egyptians","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/why-these-toads-have-turned-to-cannibalism","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.3316831683168318,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9061d5bb-4a02-447e-b726-4c69c208cab4/STOCK_BT_2207_Toad_Egg_Predation.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9061d5bb-4a02-447e-b726-4c69c208cab4/STOCK_BT_2207_Toad_Egg_Predation_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9061d5bb-4a02-447e-b726-4c69c208cab4/STOCK_BT_2207_Toad_Egg_Predation_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9061d5bb-4a02-447e-b726-4c69c208cab4/STOCK_BT_2207_Toad_Egg_Predation_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9061d5bb-4a02-447e-b726-4c69c208cab4/STOCK_BT_2207_Toad_Egg_Predation_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9061d5bb-4a02-447e-b726-4c69c208cab4/STOCK_BT_2207_Toad_Egg_Predation_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9061d5bb-4a02-447e-b726-4c69c208cab4/STOCK_BT_2207_Toad_Egg_Predation_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9061d5bb-4a02-447e-b726-4c69c208cab4/STOCK_BT_2207_Toad_Egg_Predation_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9061d5bb-4a02-447e-b726-4c69c208cab4/STOCK_BT_2207_Toad_Egg_Predation","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9061d5bb-4a02-447e-b726-4c69c208cab4/STOCK_BT_2207_Toad_Egg_Predation.jpg","altText":"Picture of tadpoles.","crdt":"Photograph by Michael Crossland","dsc":"An infamous invasive species in Australia, the Rhinella marina toad has become so populous that it’s now cannibalizing itself.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"departments-07.2022-BT-tadpoles"},"abstract":"Surprising science news including toad overpopulation, sharp-eyed sunflower pollinators, and catfish-worshipping ancient Egyptians","title":"Why these toads have turned to cannibalism","tags":[{"name":"Magazine","id":"9af83c1e-1fdc-3710-b252-c42eedb1b7c1","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine"},{"name":"Breakthroughs","id":"5192a513-154e-3150-a2f3-3f08e943e40a","type":"series","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/topic/breakthroughs"}]}],"heading":"Science","pageInfo":{"endCursor":"NTpSRmxPUVY4d0kwbEVPa1JTVG54a2NtNDZjM0pqT201aGRHZGxienAxYm1semIyNDZPbkJ5YjJRNk5XSXdObUU0TkdNdFptUXlOaTAwTVRZMExXRmtOR0l0TXpVME0yWmxaalU1WldWaUkxTlBVbFE2YjNKcFoybHVZV3hRZFdKc2FYTm9aV1JFWVhSbGZERTJOVFF4TmpjMk1EQXdNREE9","hasNextPage":true},"templateContext":"eyJjb250ZW50VHlwZSI6IlVuaXNvbkFydGljbGVDb250ZW50IiwidmFyaWFibGVzIjp7ImluY2x1ZGVNZWRpYUNvbnRlbnRzIjoidHJ1ZSIsImxvY2F0b3IiOiIvc2NpZW5jZS9hcnRpY2xlL2hvdy1kcnVnbWFrZXJzLWNvbWUtdXAtd2l0aC1ldm9jYXRpdmUtYnJhbmQtbmFtZXMtbGlrZS12aWFncmEtYW5kLWx1bmVzdGEiLCJwb3J0Zm9saW8iOiJuYXRnZW8iLCJxdWVyeVR5cGUiOiJMT0NBVE9SIn0sIm1vZHVsZUlkIjpudWxsfQ"},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-travel","cmsType":"CarouselModule","centerHeading":true,"edgs":[{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-travel-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-travel-tile_3810492a-88de-426e-94a5-3022ce5474cc","description":"From New York to Minneapolis to Los Angeles, independent stages fill in the gaps of the American experience.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/article/these-groundbreaking-theaters-shine-spotlight-on-asian-stories","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.5003663003663004,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2cdd04e9-7c36-4f93-9c10-f12e66e0b5b3/resized-ManOfGod_JiYoungYoo-RoyVongtama.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2cdd04e9-7c36-4f93-9c10-f12e66e0b5b3/resized-ManOfGod_JiYoungYoo-RoyVongtama_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2cdd04e9-7c36-4f93-9c10-f12e66e0b5b3/resized-ManOfGod_JiYoungYoo-RoyVongtama_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2cdd04e9-7c36-4f93-9c10-f12e66e0b5b3/resized-ManOfGod_JiYoungYoo-RoyVongtama_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2cdd04e9-7c36-4f93-9c10-f12e66e0b5b3/resized-ManOfGod_JiYoungYoo-RoyVongtama_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2cdd04e9-7c36-4f93-9c10-f12e66e0b5b3/resized-ManOfGod_JiYoungYoo-RoyVongtama_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2cdd04e9-7c36-4f93-9c10-f12e66e0b5b3/resized-ManOfGod_JiYoungYoo-RoyVongtama_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2cdd04e9-7c36-4f93-9c10-f12e66e0b5b3/resized-ManOfGod_JiYoungYoo-RoyVongtama_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2cdd04e9-7c36-4f93-9c10-f12e66e0b5b3/resized-ManOfGod_JiYoungYoo-RoyVongtama","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/2cdd04e9-7c36-4f93-9c10-f12e66e0b5b3/resized-ManOfGod_JiYoungYoo-RoyVongtama.jpg","altText":"a woman forcefully positions her foot at a man's head","crdt":"Photograph Courtesy of East West Players","dsc":"Man Of God still featuring Ji Young Yoo Roy Vongtama","ext":"jpg","ttl":"Man Of God"},"abstract":"From New York to Minneapolis to Los Angeles, independent stages fill in the gaps of the American experience.","title":"These indie theaters shine a spotlight on Asian stories","tags":[{"name":"Travel","id":"432c4f83-2d55-3974-b95f-a221c87c0fd1","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-travel-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-travel-tile_400643b8-ee3c-4c4e-be53-d316d4054bfc","description":"From data collection to caring for injured turtles, get hands-on in one of Earth's most important sea turtle conservation programs.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/article/how-turtle-watching-tours-actually-help-conservation","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.5578787878787879,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/86a7a2ee-fc0e-49f6-b8c7-ebb1c1529155/NationalGeographic_1276838.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/86a7a2ee-fc0e-49f6-b8c7-ebb1c1529155/NationalGeographic_1276838_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/86a7a2ee-fc0e-49f6-b8c7-ebb1c1529155/NationalGeographic_1276838_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/86a7a2ee-fc0e-49f6-b8c7-ebb1c1529155/NationalGeographic_1276838_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/86a7a2ee-fc0e-49f6-b8c7-ebb1c1529155/NationalGeographic_1276838_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/86a7a2ee-fc0e-49f6-b8c7-ebb1c1529155/NationalGeographic_1276838_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/86a7a2ee-fc0e-49f6-b8c7-ebb1c1529155/NationalGeographic_1276838_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/86a7a2ee-fc0e-49f6-b8c7-ebb1c1529155/NationalGeographic_1276838_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/86a7a2ee-fc0e-49f6-b8c7-ebb1c1529155/NationalGeographic_1276838","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/86a7a2ee-fc0e-49f6-b8c7-ebb1c1529155/NationalGeographic_1276838.jpg","altText":"A leatherback turtle returns to the water after nesting in Matura, Trinidad","crdt":"Photograph by Mauricio Handler, Nat Geo Image Collection","dsc":"A leatherback turtle returns to the water after nesting in Matura, Trinidad","ext":"jpg"},"abstract":"From data collection to caring for injured turtles, get hands-on in one of Earth's most important sea turtle conservation programs.","title":"Help save sea turtles in Trinidad and Tobago","tags":[{"name":"Travel","id":"432c4f83-2d55-3974-b95f-a221c87c0fd1","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel"},{"name":"Planet Possible","id":"938b311e-8648-368e-8058-12100da9e069","type":"series","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/pages/topic/planet-possible"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-travel-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-travel-tile_4aaecd87-df3b-4061-8184-bd728af60b43","description":"Better known for lemurs, Madagascar is home to an amazing variety of orchids—and there are still more to be discovered.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/article/where-to-find-an-island-with-a-thousand-orchids","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":0.6714950853595447,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/e429e4fc-4081-4330-a751-c49151ad8497/STOCK_DEPARTMENTS_2207_DI_Cymbidiella_pardalina2427-3442.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/e429e4fc-4081-4330-a751-c49151ad8497/STOCK_DEPARTMENTS_2207_DI_Cymbidiella_pardalina2427-3442_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/e429e4fc-4081-4330-a751-c49151ad8497/STOCK_DEPARTMENTS_2207_DI_Cymbidiella_pardalina2427-3442_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/e429e4fc-4081-4330-a751-c49151ad8497/STOCK_DEPARTMENTS_2207_DI_Cymbidiella_pardalina2427-3442_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/e429e4fc-4081-4330-a751-c49151ad8497/STOCK_DEPARTMENTS_2207_DI_Cymbidiella_pardalina2427-3442_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/e429e4fc-4081-4330-a751-c49151ad8497/STOCK_DEPARTMENTS_2207_DI_Cymbidiella_pardalina2427-3442_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/e429e4fc-4081-4330-a751-c49151ad8497/STOCK_DEPARTMENTS_2207_DI_Cymbidiella_pardalina2427-3442_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/e429e4fc-4081-4330-a751-c49151ad8497/STOCK_DEPARTMENTS_2207_DI_Cymbidiella_pardalina2427-3442_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/e429e4fc-4081-4330-a751-c49151ad8497/STOCK_DEPARTMENTS_2207_DI_Cymbidiella_pardalina2427-3442","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/e429e4fc-4081-4330-a751-c49151ad8497/STOCK_DEPARTMENTS_2207_DI_Cymbidiella_pardalina2427-3442.jpg","altText":"Picture of green and red orchid flower with black spots.","crdt":"Photograph by JOHAN HERMANS","dsc":"Cymbidiella pardalina is one of roughly a thousand orchid varieties—rare, threatened, or thriving—that call Madagascar home.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"departments-07.2022-DI-orchid"},"abstract":"Better known for lemurs, Madagascar is home to an amazing variety of orchids—and there are still more to be discovered.","title":"Where to find an island with a thousand orchids","tags":[{"name":"Magazine","id":"9af83c1e-1fdc-3710-b252-c42eedb1b7c1","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-travel-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-travel-tile_6f612ede-dfd2-4e57-8f6b-6eadbdf42603","description":"Channel Islands National Park includes Santa Rosa Island, a virtual natural history museum with miles of uncrowded trails and breathtaking cliff-top ocean views.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/article/explore-13000-years-of-human-history-on-this-remote-california-island","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.499267935578331,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/51659b39-1149-4420-81db-50d4aa7f346b/resized-AKrowiak_Channel_Islands_45.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/51659b39-1149-4420-81db-50d4aa7f346b/resized-AKrowiak_Channel_Islands_45_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/51659b39-1149-4420-81db-50d4aa7f346b/resized-AKrowiak_Channel_Islands_45_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/51659b39-1149-4420-81db-50d4aa7f346b/resized-AKrowiak_Channel_Islands_45_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/51659b39-1149-4420-81db-50d4aa7f346b/resized-AKrowiak_Channel_Islands_45_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/51659b39-1149-4420-81db-50d4aa7f346b/resized-AKrowiak_Channel_Islands_45_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/51659b39-1149-4420-81db-50d4aa7f346b/resized-AKrowiak_Channel_Islands_45_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/51659b39-1149-4420-81db-50d4aa7f346b/resized-AKrowiak_Channel_Islands_45_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/51659b39-1149-4420-81db-50d4aa7f346b/resized-AKrowiak_Channel_Islands_45","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/51659b39-1149-4420-81db-50d4aa7f346b/resized-AKrowiak_Channel_Islands_45.jpg","crdt":"Photograph by Alex Krowiak","dsc":"Cliffside beach on Santa Rosa Island","ext":"jpg","ttl":"Santa Rosa Island"},"abstract":"Channel Islands National Park includes Santa Rosa Island, a virtual natural history museum with miles of uncrowded trails and breathtaking cliff-top ocean views.","title":"Explore 13,000 years of human history on this remote California island","tags":[{"name":"Travel","id":"432c4f83-2d55-3974-b95f-a221c87c0fd1","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-travel-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-travel-tile_e022d2cd-19be-46b7-84a8-a22cf3a08e39","description":"Destinations that embrace LGBTQ+ communities are rewarded with visitors. Their success shows how tourism can be more inclusive.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/article/how-destinations-are-helping-lgbtq-visitors-travel-with-pride","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.779322328410078,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d59d8053-5f86-4297-8135-d710c97e1b29/resized-GettyImages-1155003455.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d59d8053-5f86-4297-8135-d710c97e1b29/resized-GettyImages-1155003455_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d59d8053-5f86-4297-8135-d710c97e1b29/resized-GettyImages-1155003455_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d59d8053-5f86-4297-8135-d710c97e1b29/resized-GettyImages-1155003455_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d59d8053-5f86-4297-8135-d710c97e1b29/resized-GettyImages-1155003455_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d59d8053-5f86-4297-8135-d710c97e1b29/resized-GettyImages-1155003455_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d59d8053-5f86-4297-8135-d710c97e1b29/resized-GettyImages-1155003455_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d59d8053-5f86-4297-8135-d710c97e1b29/resized-GettyImages-1155003455_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d59d8053-5f86-4297-8135-d710c97e1b29/resized-GettyImages-1155003455","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d59d8053-5f86-4297-8135-d710c97e1b29/resized-GettyImages-1155003455.jpg","altText":"red car passes by rainbow intersection seen from above, Castro District in San Francisco","crdt":"Photograph by Jason Doiy, Getty Images","dsc":"aerial photos of the Castro District in San Francisco","ext":"jpg","ttl":"aerial photos of the Castro District in San Francisco"},"abstract":"Destinations that embrace LGBTQ+ communities are rewarded with visitors. Their success shows how tourism can be more inclusive.","title":"Travel with pride to these inclusive destinations","tags":[{"name":"Travel","id":"432c4f83-2d55-3974-b95f-a221c87c0fd1","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel"}]},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-travel-tile","cmsType":"RegularStandardPrismTile","cId":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-travel-tile_dca31cca-2a40-46ab-8839-94f755ad9a4b","description":"The Appian Way symbolized the Roman Empire’s might. Now Italy is restoring the ancient road, hoping to create a pilgrimage route through history.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/article/reviving-europes-first-superhighway","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.5003663003663004,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9659fd3b-fe53-44ef-80c7-9cd48a9db608/MM9639_210630_001478.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9659fd3b-fe53-44ef-80c7-9cd48a9db608/MM9639_210630_001478_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9659fd3b-fe53-44ef-80c7-9cd48a9db608/MM9639_210630_001478_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9659fd3b-fe53-44ef-80c7-9cd48a9db608/MM9639_210630_001478_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9659fd3b-fe53-44ef-80c7-9cd48a9db608/MM9639_210630_001478_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9659fd3b-fe53-44ef-80c7-9cd48a9db608/MM9639_210630_001478_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9659fd3b-fe53-44ef-80c7-9cd48a9db608/MM9639_210630_001478_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9659fd3b-fe53-44ef-80c7-9cd48a9db608/MM9639_210630_001478_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9659fd3b-fe53-44ef-80c7-9cd48a9db608/MM9639_210630_001478","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/9659fd3b-fe53-44ef-80c7-9cd48a9db608/MM9639_210630_001478.jpg","altText":"a biker rides through the ancient start of the Appian Way","dsc":"a biker rides through the ancient start of the Appian Way","ext":"jpg"},"abstract":"The Appian Way symbolized the Roman Empire’s might. Now Italy is restoring the ancient road, hoping to create a pilgrimage route through history.","title":"Reviving Europe’s ancient ‘superhighway’","tags":[{"name":"Magazine","id":"9af83c1e-1fdc-3710-b252-c42eedb1b7c1","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine"}]}],"heading":"Travel","pageInfo":{"endCursor":"NTpSRmxPUVY4d0kwbEVPa1JTVG54a2NtNDZjM0pqT201aGRHZGxienAxYm1semIyNDZPbkJ5YjJRNlpHTmhNekZqWTJFdE1tRTBNQzAwTm1GaUxUZzRNemt0T1RSbU56VTFZV1E1WVRSaUkxTlBVbFE2YjNKcFoybHVZV3hRZFdKc2FYTm9aV1JFWVhSbGZERTJOVFF4TmpjMk1EQXdNREE9","hasNextPage":true},"templateContext":"eyJjb250ZW50VHlwZSI6IlVuaXNvbkFydGljbGVDb250ZW50IiwidmFyaWFibGVzIjp7ImluY2x1ZGVNZWRpYUNvbnRlbnRzIjoidHJ1ZSIsImxvY2F0b3IiOiIvc2NpZW5jZS9hcnRpY2xlL2hvdy1kcnVnbWFrZXJzLWNvbWUtdXAtd2l0aC1ldm9jYXRpdmUtYnJhbmQtbmFtZXMtbGlrZS12aWFncmEtYW5kLWx1bmVzdGEiLCJwb3J0Zm9saW8iOiJuYXRnZW8iLCJxdWVyeVR5cGUiOiJMT0NBVE9SIn0sIm1vZHVsZUlkIjpudWxsfQ"},{"id":"natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-magazine","cmsType":"TileStackModule","trackImpression":false,"cardsDisplayed":5,"cta":{"text":"See More","url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine","target":"_self"},"heading":"Subscriber Exclusive Content","cards":[{"id":"natgeo-default-tilestack-m1-t1","cmsType":"FeaturedContentTile","cId":"natgeo-default-tilestack-m1-t1_bb905f41-79ef-4145-bbdd-8cfb82dac97d","description":"COVID-19 is a reminder of their destructive power, but they’re crucial to humans’ development and survival.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/article/viruses-can-cause-great-harm-but-we-could-not-live-without-them-feature","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":0.9201940035273368,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d26c9175-e810-4c0e-82fd-797fde842edc/viruses-embryo-og.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d26c9175-e810-4c0e-82fd-797fde842edc/viruses-embryo-og_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d26c9175-e810-4c0e-82fd-797fde842edc/viruses-embryo-og_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d26c9175-e810-4c0e-82fd-797fde842edc/viruses-embryo-og_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d26c9175-e810-4c0e-82fd-797fde842edc/viruses-embryo-og_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d26c9175-e810-4c0e-82fd-797fde842edc/viruses-embryo-og_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d26c9175-e810-4c0e-82fd-797fde842edc/viruses-embryo-og_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d26c9175-e810-4c0e-82fd-797fde842edc/viruses-embryo-og_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d26c9175-e810-4c0e-82fd-797fde842edc/viruses-embryo-og","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/d26c9175-e810-4c0e-82fd-797fde842edc/viruses-embryo-og.jpg","ext":"jpg"},"abstract":"COVID-19 is a reminder of their destructive power, but they’re crucial to humans’ development and survival.","theme":"dark","title":"How viruses shape our world","tags":[{"name":"Magazine","id":"9af83c1e-1fdc-3710-b252-c42eedb1b7c1","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine"}]},{"id":"natgeo-default-tilestack-m1-t1","cmsType":"FeaturedContentTile","cId":"natgeo-default-tilestack-m1-t1_a49587fe-d0dd-487d-8237-7641b7d4747f","description":"Concerns about the dogs’ welfare and declining betting revenue have led tracks across the country to close in recent decades.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/greyhound-racing-decline-united-states","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.2503052503052503,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a200a601-b86d-489b-95eb-8879487089bb/mm9423_200724_01291.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a200a601-b86d-489b-95eb-8879487089bb/mm9423_200724_01291_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a200a601-b86d-489b-95eb-8879487089bb/mm9423_200724_01291_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a200a601-b86d-489b-95eb-8879487089bb/mm9423_200724_01291_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a200a601-b86d-489b-95eb-8879487089bb/mm9423_200724_01291_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a200a601-b86d-489b-95eb-8879487089bb/mm9423_200724_01291_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a200a601-b86d-489b-95eb-8879487089bb/mm9423_200724_01291_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a200a601-b86d-489b-95eb-8879487089bb/mm9423_200724_01291_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a200a601-b86d-489b-95eb-8879487089bb/mm9423_200724_01291","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/a200a601-b86d-489b-95eb-8879487089bb/mm9423_200724_01291.jpg","altText":"the profile of a greyhound","crdt":"Photograph by Erika Larsen","dsc":"tktk","ext":"jpg","ttl":"greyhound-racing"},"abstract":"Concerns about the dogs’ welfare and declining betting revenue have led tracks across the country to close in recent decades.","theme":"dark","title":"The era of greyhound racing in the U.S. is coming to an end","tags":[{"name":"Animals","id":"fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals"}]},{"id":"natgeo-default-tilestack-m1-t1","cmsType":"FeaturedContentTile","cId":"natgeo-default-tilestack-m1-t1_9a91c23a-7ebe-4783-be0e-509473b023d0","description":"Scheming invaders. Benevolent vegetarians. Climate refugees. As scientific exploration has advanced, so have creative interpretations of the red planet and its potential residents.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/article/see-how-people-have-imagined-life-on-mars-through-history-feature","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":0.7509765625,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0fa355b6-2da0-4f21-ab14-0c5f24305e96/mars-rover-cameras-fantastic-adventures.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0fa355b6-2da0-4f21-ab14-0c5f24305e96/mars-rover-cameras-fantastic-adventures_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0fa355b6-2da0-4f21-ab14-0c5f24305e96/mars-rover-cameras-fantastic-adventures_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0fa355b6-2da0-4f21-ab14-0c5f24305e96/mars-rover-cameras-fantastic-adventures_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0fa355b6-2da0-4f21-ab14-0c5f24305e96/mars-rover-cameras-fantastic-adventures_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0fa355b6-2da0-4f21-ab14-0c5f24305e96/mars-rover-cameras-fantastic-adventures_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0fa355b6-2da0-4f21-ab14-0c5f24305e96/mars-rover-cameras-fantastic-adventures_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0fa355b6-2da0-4f21-ab14-0c5f24305e96/mars-rover-cameras-fantastic-adventures_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0fa355b6-2da0-4f21-ab14-0c5f24305e96/mars-rover-cameras-fantastic-adventures","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0fa355b6-2da0-4f21-ab14-0c5f24305e96/mars-rover-cameras-fantastic-adventures.jpg","altText":"tall preacher shaking hands with human.","crdt":"Photograph by CHRONICLE/ALAMY STOCK PHOTO","dsc":"1939 “The Man From Mars” Drawn by Frank R. Paul for Fantastic Adventures, this Martian is telepathic and can retract his eyes and nose to protect them from freezing.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"mars-rover-cameras-fantastic-adventures"},"abstract":"Scheming invaders. Benevolent vegetarians. Climate refugees. As scientific exploration has advanced, so have creative interpretations of the red planet and its potential residents.","theme":"dark","title":"See how people have imagined life on Mars through history","tags":[{"name":"Magazine","id":"9af83c1e-1fdc-3710-b252-c42eedb1b7c1","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine"}]},{"id":"natgeo-default-tilestack-m1-t1","cmsType":"FeaturedContentTile","description":"Slated to land on Mars this month, the Perseverance rover will search for signs of past life and test new technologies for supporting future human missions.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/graphics/see-how-nasas-new-mars-rover-will-explore-the-red-planet-feature","text":"natgeo.ctaText.explore","icon":"interactive"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/881cfee1-85e1-49eb-8514-9944f56ef8d3/mars-rover-og.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/881cfee1-85e1-49eb-8514-9944f56ef8d3/mars-rover-og_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/881cfee1-85e1-49eb-8514-9944f56ef8d3/mars-rover-og_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/881cfee1-85e1-49eb-8514-9944f56ef8d3/mars-rover-og_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/881cfee1-85e1-49eb-8514-9944f56ef8d3/mars-rover-og_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/881cfee1-85e1-49eb-8514-9944f56ef8d3/mars-rover-og_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/881cfee1-85e1-49eb-8514-9944f56ef8d3/mars-rover-og_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/881cfee1-85e1-49eb-8514-9944f56ef8d3/mars-rover-og_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/881cfee1-85e1-49eb-8514-9944f56ef8d3/mars-rover-og","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/881cfee1-85e1-49eb-8514-9944f56ef8d3/mars-rover-og.jpg","ext":"jpg"},"abstract":"Slated to land on Mars this month, the Perseverance rover will search for signs of past life and test new technologies for supporting future human missions.","theme":"dark","title":"See how NASA’s new Mars rover will explore the red planet","tags":[{"name":"Magazine","type":"sources"}]},{"id":"natgeo-default-tilestack-m1-t1","cmsType":"FeaturedContentTile","cId":"natgeo-default-tilestack-m1-t1_82e337a0-0b07-4560-b212-a97ccfe610a1","description":"The dusty red planet has fascinated us for centuries. Even as we learn more, its mysteries keep us in suspense.","ctas":[{"url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/article/why-are-people-so-dang-obsessed-with-mars-feature","text":"natgeo.ctaText.read","icon":"article"}],"img":{"crps":[{"nm":"raw","aspRto":0.92919921875,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0aedd0ea-f5f8-45c1-a135-b092ef1e8d19/mars-rover-cameras-early-photo-mars.jpg"},{"nm":"16x9","aspRto":1.7777777777777777,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0aedd0ea-f5f8-45c1-a135-b092ef1e8d19/mars-rover-cameras-early-photo-mars_16x9.jpg"},{"nm":"3x2","aspRto":1.5,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0aedd0ea-f5f8-45c1-a135-b092ef1e8d19/mars-rover-cameras-early-photo-mars_3x2.jpg"},{"nm":"square","aspRto":1,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0aedd0ea-f5f8-45c1-a135-b092ef1e8d19/mars-rover-cameras-early-photo-mars_square.jpg"},{"nm":"2x3","aspRto":0.6666666666666666,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0aedd0ea-f5f8-45c1-a135-b092ef1e8d19/mars-rover-cameras-early-photo-mars_2x3.jpg"},{"nm":"3x4","aspRto":0.75,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0aedd0ea-f5f8-45c1-a135-b092ef1e8d19/mars-rover-cameras-early-photo-mars_3x4.jpg"},{"nm":"4x3","aspRto":1.3333333333333333,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0aedd0ea-f5f8-45c1-a135-b092ef1e8d19/mars-rover-cameras-early-photo-mars_4x3.jpg"},{"nm":"2x1","aspRto":2,"url":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0aedd0ea-f5f8-45c1-a135-b092ef1e8d19/mars-rover-cameras-early-photo-mars_2x1.jpg"}],"rt":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0aedd0ea-f5f8-45c1-a135-b092ef1e8d19/mars-rover-cameras-early-photo-mars","src":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0aedd0ea-f5f8-45c1-a135-b092ef1e8d19/mars-rover-cameras-early-photo-mars.jpg","altText":"blurry photograph of Mars surface with dark spots.","crdt":"Photograph by E.C. Slipher, LOWELL OBSERVATORY ARCHIVES","dsc":"Early, blurry views of Mars inspired stories of canal-building aliens.","ext":"jpg","ttl":"mars-rover-cameras-early-photo-mars"},"abstract":"The dusty red planet has fascinated us for centuries. Even as we learn more, its mysteries keep us in suspense.","theme":"dark","title":"Why are people so dang obsessed with Mars?","tags":[{"name":"Magazine","id":"9af83c1e-1fdc-3710-b252-c42eedb1b7c1","type":"sources","uri":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine"}]}],"loop":true}],"theme":"dark","cmsType":"EnhancedFrame"}],"meta":{"cnnicl":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/how-drugmakers-come-up-with-evocative-brand-names-like-viagra-and-lunesta","dsc":"There’s an art and a science to naming pharmaceutical drugs. Here’s what is embedded in the name on the label—and why","id":"drn:src:natgeo:unison::prod:908389f1-ab32-4753-9c03-23b6ca1e078a","mdfdDt":"2022-06-10T15:03:52.360Z","ttl":"How drugmakers come up with evocative brand names like Viagra and Lunesta","sctn":"Science","sclDsc":"There’s an art and a science to naming pharmaceutical drugs. Here’s what is embedded in the name on the label—and why","sclImg":"https://i.natgeofe.com/n/0dae60a8-1cfc-4992-a07f-c90d7c359467/GettyImages-1280628013_16x9.jpg?w=1200","sclImgHgt":675.3456221198156,"sclImgWdth":1200,"sclTtl":"How drugmakers come up with evocative brand names like Viagra and Lunesta","adKvps":{"objid":"drn:src:natgeo:unison::prod:908389f1-ab32-4753-9c03-23b6ca1e078a","tag":"COVID-19"},"pgTxnmy":{"sources":["Science"]},"hreflngs":[{"lcl":"en-us","url":"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/how-drugmakers-come-up-with-evocative-brand-names-like-viagra-and-lunesta"}]},"prtfloFlgs":{"hideSharing":false,"hideSource":false},"config":{"ads":{"enabled":true,"insertedAdLimit":null,"insertedAdSpacing":900,"pzn":{"mode":"ltd","extra":true},"refreshInterval":30},"logoIcon":"ng-border","numLines":3,"type":"default","IMAGE_CONFIGS":{"large":[{"cropName":"raw","width":374,"screenWidth":374},{"cropName":"raw","width":413,"screenWidth":413},{"cropName":"raw","width":767,"screenWidth":767},{"cropName":"raw","width":1024,"screenWidth":1024},{"cropName":"raw","width":1260,"screenWidth":1440},{"cropName":"raw","width":1440}],"immersiveLdBg":{"img":[{"cropName":"raw","width":374,"screenWidth":374},{"cropName":"raw","width":413,"screenWidth":413},{"cropName":"raw","width":767,"screenWidth":767},{"cropName":"raw","width":1024,"screenWidth":1024},{"cropName":"raw","width":1260,"screenWidth":1440},{"cropName":"raw","width":1440}],"default":[{"cropName":"2x3","width":374,"screenWidth":374},{"cropName":"2x3","width":413,"screenWidth":413},{"cropName":"2x3","width":767,"screenWidth":767},{"cropName":"raw","width":1024,"screenWidth":1024},{"cropName":"raw","width":1260,"screenWidth":1440},{"cropName":"raw","width":1440}]},"inline":{"x-small":[{"cropName":"raw","width":374,"screenWidth":374},{"cropName":"raw","width":413,"screenWidth":413},{"cropName":"raw","width":636,"screenWidth":767},{"cropName":"raw","width":300}],"small":[{"cropName":"raw","width":374,"screenWidth":374},{"cropName":"raw","width":413,"screenWidth":413},{"cropName":"raw","width":636}],"medium":[{"cropName":"raw","width":374,"screenWidth":374},{"cropName":"raw","width":413,"screenWidth":413},{"cropName":"raw","width":636,"screenWidth":767},{"cropName":"raw","width":636,"screenWidth":1024},{"cropName":"raw","width":1280}],"large":[{"cropName":"raw","width":374,"screenWidth":374},{"cropName":"raw","width":413,"screenWidth":413},{"cropName":"raw","width":767,"screenWidth":767},{"cropName":"raw","width":1024,"screenWidth":1024},{"cropName":"raw","width":1260,"screenWidth":1440},{"cropName":"raw","width":1440}],"default":[{"cropName":"raw","width":374,"screenWidth":374},{"cropName":"raw","width":413,"screenWidth":413},{"cropName":"raw","width":636}]},"playlist":{"player":[{"cropName":"raw","width":374,"screenWidth":374},{"cropName":"raw","width":413,"screenWidth":413},{"cropName":"raw","width":636}],"tile":[{"cropName":"raw","width":220,"screenWidth":767},{"cropName":"raw","width":300,"screenWidth":1119},{"cropName":"raw","width":195}]},"spnsrBanner":[{"cropName":"raw","height":32}],"tileStack":{"aspectRatio":0.75,"cropName":"3x4","width":400}}}}},"transition":{"hide":{"default":true,"rules":[{"priority":4,"retValue":false,"conditions":[{"type":"change","path":"pageType","val":false},{"type":"change","path":"section","val":false},{"type":"change","path":"subsection","val":false},{"type":"change","path":"subPageType","val":false},{"type":"change","path":"slug","val":false}]}]},"reload":{"default":true,"rules":[{"priority":4,"retValue":false,"conditions":[{"type":"change","path":"pageType","val":false},{"type":"change","path":"section","val":false},{"type":"change","path":"subsection","val":false},{"type":"change","path":"subPageType","val":false},{"type":"change","path":"slug","val":false}]}]}},"ads":{"kvps":[{"name":"pgtyp","value":"article"},{"name":"ed","value":"us"},{"name":"lang","value":"en"},{"name":"objid","value":"drn:src:natgeo:unison::prod:908389f1-ab32-4753-9c03-23b6ca1e078a"},{"name":"tag","value":"COVID-19"}]},"analytics":{"page_type":"article","page_url":"www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/how-drugmakers-come-up-with-evocative-brand-names-like-viagra-and-lunesta","page_id":"drn:src:natgeo:unison::prod:908389f1-ab32-4753-9c03-23b6ca1e078a","page_taxonomy":{"srcs":"Science"},"cntrbGrp":[{"contributors":[{"displayName":"Stacey Colino"}],"title":"By","rl":"Writer"}],"pbDt":"2022-06-10T15:05:46.260Z","hsImmrsvLd":true,"mdDt":"2022-06-10T15:03:52.360Z","wrdcnt":2264,"story_id":"drn:src:natgeo:unison::prod:908389f1-ab32-4753-9c03-23b6ca1e078a"}},"request":{"headers":{},"httpVersion":"1.1","method":"GET","url":"/science/article/how-drugmakers-come-up-with-evocative-brand-names-like-viagra-and-lunesta","vary":{"cached":true,"device":"pc","host":"www.nationalgeographic.com","path":"/science/article/how-drugmakers-come-up-with-evocative-brand-names-like-viagra-and-lunesta","forwarded-proto":"https","country":"us","edition":"natgeo-en-us","edition-view":"natgeo-en-us","loggedin":"false"}},"viewport":{"width":1260,"height":0,"scrollX":0,"scrollY":0}};

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.